The statistical data show that the application of active cooling is spread widely in residential and commercial buildings. In these buildings, the ventilation is significantly increased in the whole energy consumption. There are similar problems in the operation of post-insulation of existing buildings. In this case, the energy consumption of the ventilation system gives a major proportion of the whole building services energy consumption. The opportuneness of this research shows that the actual available calculation procedures and technical designing data are only rough approximations for analyzing the energy consumption of air handling units and the energy saved by the integrated heat or energy recovery units. There are not exact methods and unequivocal technical data. In previous researches, the production and development companies have not investigated the effectiveness of the energy recovery units under difference ambient air conditions and the period of defrost cycle when the heat recovery can only partly operate under difference ambient air temperatures. During this term, a re-heater has to fully heat up the ambient cold air to the temperature of supplied air and generate the required heating demand to provide the necessary indoor air temperature.
Authors:Bellahsen Naoufal, Kertész Szabolcs, Pásztory Zoltán, and Hodúr Cecilia
Nutrient removal has become one of the key challenges for wastewater treatment facilities all over the world due to the harmful effect of these pollutants on water bodies and ecosystems known by eutrophication, however, most of the currently used technologies are not focused on nutrients recovery from wastewater. Recently, using agricultural waste/by-products for adsorption of nutrients acquired more interest because of their abundant availability, low-cost, high efficiency and eco-friendly advantages and this method may become more environmentally sustainable through maximizing removal while delivering nutrient and energy recovery technologies with economically attractive return on investment.
This review investigates the application of agricultural waste/by-products as bio-sorbent for phosphate, ammonium and nitrate removal with a focus on the modification methods and the process mechanism including influent parameters, kinetics and isotherms.
Authors:S. Galvagno, S. Casu, M. Martino, E. Di Palma, and Sabrina Portofino
The world production of tyre waste amounts to 5106
ton year–1, 2106
tons of which are produced in Europe, but the final destination of nearly
65–70% of them is the landfill, despite the high added value materials
lost and the consequent environmental impact.
to landfilling take into account reconstruction and reuse of the tyres or
the matter and/or energy recovery by means of thermal treatment processes
(incineration, gasification and pyrolysis). Among these, pyrolysis seems to
be a promising and realistic alternative to attain the conversion of tyre
waste into valuable and reusable products.
Present work relates
to experimental tests and results obtained for the study of tyre waste pyrolysis,
conducted by means of thermo-gravimetric analysis (TG) of the material and
the simultaneous determination, through Fourier transform infrared (FTIR)
and mass spectrometry (MS), of the decomposition products. The analysis of
the volatile fraction allows to isolate, within the thermograms, the evolution
of products referable to specific tyre components and therefore it suggests
the application of a multi-component decomposition model. The kinetic model
consequently developed agrees fairly well with the experimental data.
Authors:J. Añón, M. Añón, F. Fraga, J. Palacios, and L. Regueira
Following a method based on the procedure given by Hubbardet al.  the calorific values of combustion in oxygen at 298.15 K were measured by static-bomb calorimetry for forest residues.
This waste mainly coming from mount reforestation, construction of firebreaks, etc., constitutes an important risk to originate
forest fire. From combustion experiments the mean calorific value of all species studied was found close to 19 000 kJ·kg−1, similar to calorific values of Municipal Waste. It can be concluded that this forest residues can be used as an additional
fuel to be added to Municipal Solid Waste in energy recovery plants. By doing this, energy, in this moment lost as abandoned
residues, can be recovered. At the same time the elimination of this waste minimizes the risk of forest fires. Our results
reasonably agree with literature values.
behavior of polysaccharides in the food industry, recycling, energyrecovery and treatment of industrial waste, characterization and application in the oil (asphalt, biodiesel, and heavy oil).
Chairwoman of Organic Department (1995–1997 and 2003
recycling, energyrecovery and landfilling . Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing , 49 , 89 – 99 .
Directive 2008/1/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 15 January 2008 concerning
source of water but also of sources of substances in wastewater [ 14 ]. These are organic substances, nutrients (N, P) and other important macro and microelements. The phosphorus and nitrogen and energyrecovery can add substantial new worth streams to
Authors:S. C. Kaushik, N. L. Panwar, and V. Siva Reddy
saving of overall energy costs. However, the potentiality of such energyrecovery has not been considered while designing RAC systems in most of the installed units, obviously due to limited avenues where the recovered energy could be put to use [ 12