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In the opera materials of the Esterházy Court in the Széchényi National Library in Budapest, that have survived from the time when Haydn directed the opera at Eszterháza, there are several inserted papers that had been used before the sheet of paper was re-used for the adaptation of the given opera. The fragmentary notations vary in content and extent. Two groups are of special interest for Haydn scholars: fragments that can be related to Haydn’s operas and fragments written by Haydn. The latter are listed in the appendix in a catalogue that might be expanded in the future.

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Abstract

The restoration of the Castle Esterházy in Eszterháza and the reproductions of its Interiors in Budapest and Vienna at the End of the 19th Century. The restoration of the Castle in Eszterháza was made between 1891–1896/1897 by the Viennese Company Friedrich Otto Schmidt. In course of the restoration work were furniture and wall revetments of the 18th century restored, complemented by modern pieces and also copies of the original luxury Esterházy-furniture were made. The reputation of the Company went established by the restoration of Fertod castle in the whole Austrian-Hungarian Monarchy. In the 1896 Millenary Exhibition of Budapest the copy of a suite of rooms of the castle was on show. This was later not accepted by the Budapest Museum of Applied Arts in his permanent exhibition because Director Jeno Radisics has considered the Rococo style of the castle as a break with the organic evolution of Hungarian art and was also opposed by principles to the substitution of historical objects by copies.

The Schmidt Company has exhibited 1898 in the Assembly Room of the Winter Exhibition of the Österreichisches Museum für Kunst und Industrie a so-called exact copy of the Apollo-Room of Eszterháza, really a series of copies of French Rococo luxury furniture. As a program of exact copy, this interior can be considered as a radical break with the former practice of Historicism. By this change a crisis was caused in the relationship of the Director Arthur von Scala to the Kunstgewerbeverein in Vienna and by the survival of Historicism also to the circle of the Secession.

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Der Beitrag beschäftigt sich mit der Geschichte der Wasserkultur und deren architektonischen Implementierung im Zeitalter des Barock. In dieser Epoche scheint mir vor allem interessant, was der Mensch über das Wasser als physikalisches Element und dessen Gesetze im Königreich Ungarn überhaupt wusste. Eine der bedeutenden Quellen ist dabei das handschriftliche, enzyklopädisch angelegte Lehrbuch eines ungarischen Piaristen, der darin die zeitgenössischen Erkenntnisse der Naturwissenschaften zusammenzufassen versucht hatte. Es handelt sich dabei um Lukács Mösch’s Skriptum Bibliothecae mathematicae … Classis I–III. Anno 1684. Diese Handschrift unterlegt die wissenschaftlichen Erklärungen auch mit zahlreichen wertvollen Illustrationen, von denen einige hier wiedergegeben werden. Die praktischen Anwendung dieses Mösch’schen Lehrstoffes sehen wir in der ungarischen Gartenkunst des Zeitalters, in der die technische Attraktionen mit dem Theater und der christlichen Symbolik verbunden wurden. Die Beispiele dafür bilden die aristokratischen Gärten von Eger, Cseklész, Pozsonyivánka und Eszterháza, die in diesem Text näher besprochen werden.

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Abstract

A recently purchased painting with the history of Esther before Ahasuerus can be identified as a pendant to Paul Trogers The child Moses before Pharaoh (Residenzgalerie, Salzburg). As the figure of Esther in the Budapest painting is evidently related to the Panitent Magdalen in a private collection in Trento from the Late 1720-s, even the datation of the Salzburg piece (1739/40) can be reconsidered. The ceiling sketch showing the Stoning of St. Stephen and St. John the Evangelist in the oil kettle can be identified on the base of a monogram as a work by Joseph Mages and identified as a preparatory sketch for his fresco in the nave of the parish church in Häder near to Augsburg. According to its provenance a retable painting with the Ascension of the Virgin which can be attributed to Joseph Ignaz Mildorfer could be made for a chapel in West Hungary. Its probably commissioners are the Dukes or the Counts Esterházy or the Town of Sopron. It shows a close relations mainly to the dome fresco in the castle chapel of Eszterháza (Fertőd, 1764), so it can be dated around 1765.

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As the first Italian opera to grace the stage of the new opera house at Eszterháza, Lo speziale (1768) afforded Kapellmeister Haydn, and the singers and orchestral musicians under his direction, the opportunity to revel in comedic performance. The revised libretto translated well to the rural court of Prince Nicolaus, whose tastes and cultural patronage extended to opera buffa. As Matthew Head has argued ( Cambridge Companion , 2005), Sempronio, the apothecary of the title whose fascination with the exotic makes him an easy target for duping, is also a harbinger of difference. And this “difference,” I contend, is the sign of Sempronio’s main character flaw — his Jewishness. Like other theatrical stereotypes on the mid-eighteenth-century stage, Jews came with a recognizable set of characteristic traits, all of which could readily be exploited in comedic contexts. How the apothecary’s profession and characterization, including aspects of voice, body and gesture, are linked to Jewish representation, is explored in this article through the analysis of a couple of representative scenes from the opera, among them the final Turkish scene, in which a confrontation between Orientalist Others creates semiotic overload. By characterizing the apothecary as Jewish, Haydn was able to demonstrate his complicity in the ideological agenda operative under the terms of his employment — i.e. that of re-inscribing the needs, desires and dominating authority of Prince Nicolaus. In Lo speziale , the prince’s penchant for theatrical works featuring Jewish characters and caricatures was transferred from Wanderntruppe to Operntruppe .

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Die Fakten zeigen ein Hervorgehen von zahlreichen Kompositionen für konzertierenden Kontrabaß aus dem ungarischen Raum. Die größten und bedeutendsten Adelskapellen hatten dort ihren Sitz, nämlich in Eisenstadt und Eszterháza, in Großwardein und in Preßburg, wo infolgedessen auch die Solisten zu finden waren, denen solche Partien zuzutrauen waren, und wo Komponisten wie Haydn, Dittersdorf und Pichl wirkten, die sie ihnen auf den Leib schrieben, wenn sie nicht - wie Sperger und Kämpfer - selbst in dieser Richtung tätig waren. Der konzertierende Kontrabaß war  eine neue, von Haydn zu Beginn der 1760er Jahre kreierte Errungenschaft.Der Anstoß zur Komposition von fast 30 Konzerten und konzertierender Kammermusik für das größte Streichinstrument ist nicht direkt von Haydn ausgegangen, sondern von seinem Freund Ditters, der den Kontakt mit ihm auch nach Eisenstadt aufrecht erhalten hatte und nach seinem fünfjährigen Intermezzo in Großwardein 1769 mit Pichl und dem Kontrabassisten Pischlberger nach Wien zurückkehrte, von wo die von Haydn ausgestreute und von Ditters weiter gepflegte Saat ins nahe gelegene Preßburg weitergetragen wurde, wo die Virtuosen und Komponisten Sperger und Kämpfer zusammen in der fürstbischöflichen Kapelle tätig waren und dort und in Wien öffentliche Konzerte gaben.

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One of the more surprising developments in recent American music theory has been the revival of interest in traditional, as opposed to Schenkerian, approaches to musical form. Spearheading this renewal are William Caplin’s 1998 treatise Classical Form , and James Hepokoski and Warren Darcy’s more recent Elements of Sonata Theory (2006). Both treatises, however, ignore the eighteenth-century operatic repertory entirely. And while valuable studies of eighteenth-century aria-forms exist (notably by James Webster and Mary Hunter), such studies generally predate the advent of the new American Formenlehre . There is, as a result, a gap between the most recent developments in the theory of Classical form and our current understanding of formal processes in late-eighteenth-century opera.This paper sketches one possible way across that gap. Even a casual survey of Haydn’s Eszterháza operas suggests that formal processes play out in ways related to, but nonetheless distinct from, their articulation in Haydn’s instrumental music (in response, no doubt, to the particular exigencies of writing texted music for the operatic stage). Thanks to its characteristic attention to the smallest possible form-functional units — the presentational, continuational and cadential phrases that subsist at the intra-thematic level — Caplin’s approach to Classical form proves particularly adaptable to this new context. The paper illustrates the analytic usefulness of Caplin’s approach for analyzing vocal music through a consideration of representative examples from Armida and Il mondo della luna .

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Summary

The ceiling fresco of the tower-room in Sárvár Castle follows with a few iconographic and compositional changes the fresco of Daniel Gran (1730) in the main hall of the Hofbibliothek (at present Österreichische Nationalbibliothek) in Vienna. The frescoes, in a bad condition and restored in 1960, were held to be works by Stefan Dorffmeister form the end of the 1760s. Mainly on the basis of its compositional qualities, the frescoes in Sárvár show many ressenblances with works by Joseph Ignaz Mildorfer, made in the 1750s and 1760s for Hungarian patrons, among them the ceiling of the Chapel in the Esterházy Castle in Pápa (1758), the dome-fresco of the Chapel (1964) and the ceiling in the main hall (1766/67) of the Palacee of Eszterháza. The closest relationship can be observed with the painted decoration of the state room of the Forgách Castle in Gács (Halič, Slovakia, early 1760s). The frescoes in S Sárvár can be dated according to the relationships of the owners before 1759, when the Castle belonged to Count Georg Szluha and his wife, Rosalie Sinzendorf (whose mother was a Countess Draskovich). The subject of the painting as well as the choice of the painter could be the result of the Szluha connection with the imperial court and also by the fact that his wife was related to Count Antal Grassalkovich. The latter was in contact with architects at the imperial court (N. Pacassi, J. N. Jadot), working with Mildorfer. The iconography of the tower-room represents a mixture of traditional iconography of libraries and of sale terrene, so its function as a private closet, a kind of Baroque studiolo can be supposed.

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Hunter, Mary Kathleen (1982) Haydn's Aria Forms: A Study of the Arias in the Italian Operas written at Eszterháza, 1766-1783. Ph. D. dissertation, Cornell University. Jones, David Wyn - Biba, Otto (Eds.) (2002

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1966 Csorna Antal: Az óbudai Zichy-kastély kertje . Műemlékvédelem X ( 1966 ) 1 . 37 – 40 . Dávid 2000 Dávid Ferenc: Eszterháza belső terei . Ars Hungarica XXVIII ( 2000 ) 1 . 73 – 95 . Dávid 2002 Dávid Ferenc: A fertődi Esterházy

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