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Goldmark was the first of several composers to write a work based on Heinrich von Kleist’s controversial play, Penthesilea. Early critical opinion about the overture was divided. Hanslick found it distasteful, whereas others were thrilled by Goldmark’s powerful treatment of the subject. Composed in 1879, during the 1880s Penthesilea became established in orchestral repertoire throughout Europe and America. The overture represents the conflict of violence and sexual attraction between the Queen of the Amazons and Achilles. Exoticism in the play is achieved by contrasting brutal violence, irrational behaviour and extreme sensual passion. This is recreated musically by drawing on topics established in opera. Of particular note is the use of dissonance and unexpected modulations, together with extreme rhythmic and dynamic contrast. A key feature of the music is the interplay between military rhythms representing violence and conflict, and a legato, rocking theme which suggests desire and sensuality.

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Symphony and the Seraglio. In: Jonathan Bellman, ed. The Exotic in Western Music . Boston, MA: Northeastern University Press, 43–73. Hunter M The Exotic in

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The economy of the exotic

The relation of shell architecture and industrialization in Hungary between 1949–1970

Építés - Építészettudomány
Authors: Orsolya Gáspár and István Sajtos

The history of shell architecture is closely linked to the rapid industrialization of the first half of the 20th century. The large spans required for industrial buildings were most suitable for the developing structural systems based on reinforced concrete shells. Present paper studies the unique features of the development of shell architecture in Hungary, in comparison to other former socialist states and the West. The significance of individual engineering qualities as opposed to the international trends is studied via the evolution of the shell roofing designed for the KÖFÉM Factory. The different social-political context and the relative isolation of the Soviet Sphere of interest during the second half of the 20th century generated a mild western interest toward the ‘exotic’, the architectural developments of the eastern block. As the former socialist countries are recently coming to terms with their socialist architectural heritage, this interest is awakened. The short analysis of the western recognition of Hungarian industrial architecture in general and shell architecture in particular helps to understand its global and local relevance freed from the self-affirming interpretation of the contemporary socialist press.

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Blair, B.C., D.K. Letourneau, S.G. Bothwell and G.F. Hayes. 2010. Disturbance, resources, and exotic plant invasion: gap size effects in a redwood forest. Madroño 57: 11–19. Hayes G

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. , Vishwakarma , A.K. , Nepolean , T. , Hossain , F. 2014 . Microsatellitebased genetic diversity in selected exotic and indigenous maize ( Zea mays L.) inbred lines differing in total kernel carotenoids . Indian J. Genet. 74 : 34 – 41

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Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry
Authors: B. Wierczinski, J. Alstad, K. Eberhardt, J. Kratz, R. Malmbeck, M. Mendel, A. Nähler, J. Omtvedt, G. Skarnemark, N. Trautmann, and N. Wiehl

Abstract  

Fast solvent extraction is a chemical separation method, which can be applied to study exotic nuclides. Since about 1970 the SISAK technique, which is an on-line method based on multi-stage solvent extraction separations, has been successfully used to investigate the nuclear properties of β-decaying nuclides with half-lives down to about one second. During the last decade it has become possible to produce transactinide elements in high enough yields to investigate their chemical properties on a one-atom-at-a-time scale. For this purpose it was necessary to improve and change the detection part of the SISAK system in order to be capable to detect spontaneously fissioning and α-decaying nuclides in a flowing organic solution. This technique is based on liquid scintillation counting with pulse-shape discrimination and pile-up rejection

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Folksong settings are usually the least appreciated works of a composer. Focusing on Béla Bartók's guiding principles in creating folksong settings, the author examine the motivations that have driven other composers to use folk material in their works.  The spread of the idea of nationalism, resulting in the endeavor to create an idiomatic national language of music played the lead in many cases. But the folksong as an exotic object also exerted an enormous appeal on composers and audiences alike, making folksong settings generally, but not always, a profitable undertaking as well. In the long run, the artistic quality of the folksong, its expressive power despite its succinct form, fascinated composers and inspired them to create a wealth of folksong settings. 

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A number of Haydn’s minuet movements from the 1760s and 1770s contain sparsely scored trio sections in which a single musical idea is repeated continuously, even obsessively. In these trios — of which the most distinctive are in Symphonies Nos. 21, 28, 29, 30, 43, 46, and 58 — Haydn developed and cultivated an aesthetic of the minimal. While they conjure a range of moods, these trios share several features that mark them as a distinct type. These include circular harmonic motion, schematic melodies, and the use of certain characteristic intervals. Although modern critics consistently ascribe ‘Balkan’, ‘Gypsy’, ‘Slavonic’, or ‘Eastern European’ qualities to these trios, the evidence for these claims is scanty. The exotic quality of the trios is best viewed in light of Haydn’s minimization of particular compositional parameters, such as dynamics, scoring, and motivic and textural variance. At the same time, it is precisely the minimal quality of these trios that allows Haydn to explore in dramatic fashion the mechanics of contrast in the da capo form. While Haydn’s minimal style appears most consistently in trios of the 1760s and 1770s, it also informs his later trio writing.

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A pot trial was carried out in the greenhouse of the National Research Centre during the summer season of 1999 to investigate the combined impact of Bradyrhizobium sp. (vigna) and Azotobacter vinelandii in the presence of various doses of chemical fertilizers, i.e. 25%, 50% and 100% of the recommended dose of NPK, on nodulation, growth parameters, seed yield and its components, and seed contents of protein, phosphorus and potassium of a local (Kawmy-1) and three exotic (VC-4, VC-9 and King) varieties of mungbean. The results indicated that there were no significant differences between the different varieties for nodule number per plant, while significant variations were obtained between both varieties and biofertilization treatments. The plants of the Kawmy-1 variety gave the shortest period of growth, the highest number of pods per plant and the highest values of harvest index and seed protein content. The King variety had the longest period of growth and the highest values for number of branches, seed yield, biological yield, seed index and seed phosphorus content. The inclusion of Azotobacter vinelandii significantly augmented various tested parameters, with the exception of seed yield, biological yield and potassium content, in comparison with Bradyrhizobium. Insignificant differences were found owing to the interaction between varieties, various levels of mineral fertilizers and types of biofertilizers with the exception of harvest index and seed phosphorus content.

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The KLP+ (“hat”) trap baited with pheromone or floral lures is a highly efficient non-sticky trap for the western corn rootworm, Diabrotica v. virgifera. We tested the suitability of this trap design for the related species, D. speciosa and D. barberi, baited with their respective lures. Both species are exotic to Europe: the former inhabits South America, and the latter occurs in some parts of North America.In screening tests performed in Brazil, several synthetic floral compounds and their combinations were found to be attractive to D. speciosa. However, the greatest effect was recorded for the previously described attractant 1,4-dimethoxybenzene. When the most active compounds in the preliminary test, 2-phenylethanol, methyl anthranilate, eugenol or benzaldehyde were added to 1,4-dimethoxybenzene, no synergistic effects were observed. When 1,4-dimethoxybenzene was formulated in three types of polyethylene (PE) dispensers in KLP+ traps, PE bag dispensers were superior to two types of PE vial dispenser, and caught hundreds of D. speciosa. Unbaited traps caught only negligible numbers. There was an interesting non-target effect. KLP+ traps with 1,4-dimethoxybenzene caught large numbers of the cornsilk fly, Euxesta eluta, which is known as a maize pest.For D. barberi, both a pheromone and a potent floral lure are already known. In tests with KLP+ traps, we found that the pheromone and floral lures can be applied together in the same trap to maximize both male and female catches.In conclusion, for early detection programs in Europe, the application of KLP+ traps baited with 1,4-dimethoxybenzene in PE bag dispensers could be recommended for D. speciosa, and KLP+ traps with dual (pheromone and floral) lures for D. barberi. In the case of D. barberi, one should note that the lures also show some attraction for D. v. virgifera, and the ratio of D. barberi vs. D. v. virgifera in the catch will be predominantly determined by the relative population densities at the given site.

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