A critical examination is made of a recently suggested experimental technique which utilizes the Johnson-Mehl-Avrami transformation rate equation to describe nonisothermal transformations. It is shown that for transformations involving nucleation and growth the technique has limited applicability.
On the basis of copper sulphate pentahydrate thermal dissociation, for analyzed reactions I to IV, 6 thermokinetic equations was discussed. Arrhenius law parameters were determined and the isokinetic effect (IE) and Kissinger law appearing was analyzed. It was found that only dependence resulting from isokinetic effect, in the form km=q/Tm, relates to the suitable thermokinetic Eq. (2) and Kissinger law in modified form (14). The confirmation was made that the possibility of determining the averaged activation energy from thermokinetic equations using suitable correction coefficients exists.
Dense in-group and scarce out-group relations (network segregation) often support the emergence of conflicts between groups. A key underlying mechanism is social control that helps to overcome the collective action problem within groups, but contributes to harmful conflicts among them in segregated settings. In this study, a new experimental design is introduced to test whether internalized social control affects contribution decisions in intergroup-related collective action. Subjects played single-shot Intergroup Public Good games in two groups of five each without communication. Subjects were connected via computers and connection patterns were manipulated to detect forms of social control that are activated conditional on expectations and on the composition of the artificially created ego-network. Results confirm the influence of behavioral confirmation and the conditional impact of internalized traitor and selective incentives. As an aggregated consequence of these social control effects, harmful intergroup outcomes were least likely when members of the groups were arranged in a mixed network. JEL classification: C91; C92; D74; H41; Z13
Coal is an important fuel used in boiler furnaces. There are problems like unburnt coal and solid wastes like ash contain
arsenic, selenium, chromium and cadmium while using it. In order to avoid all such difficulties, aluminium metal powder in
various grain sizes mixed with pulverized coal and burned. aluminium metal powder is one of the pyrotechnics having higher
calorific value and low ignition temperature. The thermal behavior of aluminium powder along with coal is recorded in DTA.
The collected ashes were tested in Scanning Electron Microscope and X-Ray Diffraction meter. The SEM results show that coal
ash is having granular and regular structure. All the particles have a size range from 5 to 8 μm. On the other hand, the aluminium
coal mixture ash shows a fibrous matrix and the particles are irregular. In XRD graph, the peaks in the graph show orientation
of atoms in particular plane and angle. The coal ash has a lot of peaks, but the maximum count value reaches only to 340.97.
However the value of counts reaches a maximum of 1,539.06 for aluminium ash. This denotes high atom orientation in a single
Authors:Y. Camlitepe, V. Aksoy, N. Uren, A. Yilmaz, and I. Becenen
Ant responses were tested under both the natural geomagnetic and artificially induced Earth-strength electromagnetic field. Foragers were trained for a month to visit a food source at the north arm accessed through an orientation platform assembly. Under the natural geomagnetic field, when all other orientational cues were eliminated, results indicated significant heterogeneity of ant distribution with the majority seeking geomagnetic north in darkness. However, in light, foragers failed to discriminate geomagnetic north. Under shifted artificial electromagnetic field, orientation was predominantly on the artificial magnetic N/S axis with a significant preference for the artificial north in both light and dark conditions.
Authors:Dimitrios Kaziolas, Khairedin Abdalla, and Charalambos Baniotopoulos
It is well known that one of the most popular methods of connecting members in structural steel work is the bolted end-plate connection. Bolted end-plates are simple in their use and construction. But they are extremely complex in term of analysis and behavior since the connection behavior significantly affects the structural frame response and therefore it has to be included to the global analysis and the design of frame. The present paper deals with the structural behavior of full-scale stiffened and un-stiffened cantilever connections of typical I sections. The connection between the extended end-plate to the column flange is achieved by means of high strength bolts in each case. In order to obtain experimentally the actual tension force induced within each bolt, strain gauges were installed inside each one of the top bolts. Thus, the connection behavior is characterized by the tension force in the bolt, the extended end-plate behavior, the moment-rotation relation and the beam and column strains. Thereby, it is important to predict the global behavior of column-beam connections by means of their geometrical and mechanical properties. The experimental test results are compared to those obtained by means of a numerical approach based on the finite element method and is coupled to the theory of non-smooth mechanics. All the arising non-linearities in the connection are described through a non-monotone multi-valued reaction-displacement law. Thus, the problem is formulated as a hemivariational inequality leading to a sub-stationarity problem of the potential or the complementary energy of the connection. This simulation problem is solved by applying a non-convex non-smooth optimization algorithm. The comparison of the results of the experimental testing program with the numerical simulation proves the effectiveness of the proposed numerical method.
available in the literature [ 19 – 25 ].
In this study, the main objective is to investigate the performance of a VCR system based on exergy analysis. The experimentalanalysis has been done on a 2TR (ton of refrigeration) window air conditioning
multi-layer adsorption it is common to use standard isotherms. To establish
such isotherms experimental data are required at a wide range of adsorptive
pressure. This paper presents the theoretical and experimental analysis of
the new tδ-method,
which is suitable to predict type II multi-layer adsorption isotherms on the
basis of only two adsorption values, measured in the area of mono- and multi-layer
saturation and of the surface fractal dimension of the adsorbent.
The work questions the significance of the steady-state R-value for high mass wall systems through experimental analysis of the thermal behavior of two stabilized rammed earth building components representing a building envelope subjected to variable temperatures in the form of 24 hour cyclic sinusoidal inputs. It shows that when the environment temperature is used to quantify the thermal fluctuation of a zone the response of the walls surfaces to energy cycles can be determined by dynamic thermal transfer properties expressed in accordance with EN ISO 13786: 2007 relating cyclic heat flux to cyclic temperature variations.