After the serious effects of the international crisis of 2008 export activity – as a main form of internationalisation – proved to be an important element of survival and growth for small and medium sized enterprises. Recovery was especially difficult for the so-called peripheral countries, among them the Iberian, Baltic and Visegrád economies, on which this article concentrates. The observed period is between 2008 and 2016. First, a brief theoretical overview is given on SME internationalisation. Second, a literature review focuses on the export enhancing factors based on existing enterprise surveys and studies prepared after the crisis. These show that peripheral area SMEs are already similar to others regarding these stimuli, manager attitude and innovation being the most important ones. Third, statistical data are analysed to assess the significance of SMEs in employment, value added and exports. In this respect, SMEs and their pace of recovery are somewhat different in the three regions but not so distinct from the core countries. Finally, it is shown that in the post-crisis period, two main changes can be perceived: the temporary shift of exports towards non-EU markets and structural rearrangements in exporting enterprises.
The paper applies a variant of the gravity model to test whether there is a positive link between the size of trade flows and the extent to which they follow the pattern of comparative advantage. Using UNCTAD's 2016 trade data for every country in the world, and 255 merchandise items, we show that countries trading more with each other tend to follow the patterns of comparative advantages more than countries with smaller mutual trade flows. While smaller trade flows can be easily influenced by business decisions of individual companies or one-off trade contracts going against trade pattern predictions, this is not the case with larger flows. We also find signs that holding trade volume constant, more distant countries trade less than geographically proximate countries, in line with predictions from comparative advantage. The results are valid for the whole database of all country pairs in world trade, but the goodness of fit increases with the number of items these country pairs trade in. The paper is the first insight into the topic and can be expanded to a higher level of disaggregation and more variables in future research.
Authors:Pelin Varol Iyidoğan, Başak Dalgiç and Hale Akbulut
It is suggested that international trade has a positive effect on the growth rate of economies. Although a vast literature has illustrated that open or more liberalised economies grow faster, the specific factors that promote this process have only recently begun to be investigated. We belive that there is a non-linear relationship between trade and growth, with the impact depending on a number of macroeconomic factors, i.e. the magnitude and even the direction of the effect of trade on economic performance might depend on other macroeconomic variables. Within this framework, our study aims to investigate the possible non-linearity in the trade-growth relationship, with a special focus on the financial deepening level for the selected Central and Eastern European (CEE) countries. Unlike the existing empirical literature on trade-growth nexus for the CEE economies, we utilise threshold regression techniques, where we allow the size and direction of the impact of trade on growth to differ between regimes, conditioning on the financial deepening level of these countries. Regarding credit growth and investment/credit ratio as thresholds, the countries in the upper regime benefit significantly more from trade.
Authors:Tereza De Castro, Jana Vlčková and Pavel Hnát
The Czech Republic benefits from its geographical location, relatively cheap and educated labour force, industrial tradition, high economic growth, and political stability. During the last two decades, Czech-Chinese relations have intensified mainly in terms of trade but also in investment and, in more recent years, also at the political level. In this paper, we assess existing trade and investment relations between the two countries, the Czech Republic’s potential for Chinese trade and investment presence in the EU in comparison to other V4 countries, and also explore the future opportunities and threats for more intensified relations. The trade analysis reveals that the fragmentation of world production has enabled more Chinese value added exports to reach the EU western markets through processing in the Czech Republic. Mutual cooperation can be beneficial for both sides as long as both countries avoid corruption, bridge cultural differences, deal with profit repatriation and prevent misconduct in property rights.
Authors:M. Aslam, M.S.I. Zamir, S.A. Anjum, I. Khan and M. Tanveer
A pot experiment was carried out in completely randomized design (CRD) having three replications to screen out six maize (Zea mays L.) hybrids viz; FH-810, 32-F-10, FH-782, 32-B-33, YH-1898, Monsanto-6525, R-2315 and R-3304 for drought tolerance. The study was carried out with objective to screen hybrids, when exposed to drought on the early phase of their vegetative growth. The moisture treatments comprised of 100% field capacity (FC), 75% FC and 50% FC. The results exhibited that all these hybrids varied substantially in their stability against drought tolerance. However, the results pertaining to interaction of maize hybrids with three moisture levels of 100% FC, 75% FC and 50% FC revealed that 32-F-10 performed comparatively better in contrast to other maize hybrids in plant height (79.74 cm, 47.02 cm and 41.65 cm), leaf area per plant (865.10 cm2, 405.7 cm2 and 178.60 cm2), relative water contents (81.23%, 69.79% and 65.98%), at 100%, 75% and 50% FC, respectively, while YH-1898 hybrid produced lowest values of these attributes in almost all water levels. However, a better stomatal conductance (gs), photosynthetic rate (A) and transpiration rate (E) were exhibited by 32-F-10 while YH-1898 revealed least gas-exchange values among all hybrids. The experimental results revealed that under drought conditions 32-F-10 performed best than all other maize hybrids and could be used for further investigation to screen out other drought tolerant-maize hybrids for maximum production.
Authors:DongIll Kim, Deokjong Lee, Junghan Lee, Kee Namkoong and Young-Chul Jung
symptom. Childhood ADHD symptom on the WURS-KS was then added to model 2 ( F = 10.400, p < .001) and revealed that childhood ADHD symptom was not significantly associated the severity of IM. In model 3 ( F = 10.858, p < .001), IA severity on the K
Authors:L. G. Gordeeva, A. A. Khassin, G. K. Chermashentseva and T. A. Krieger
composite appeared to be less effective and the methanol concentration reached the blank value in 6–8 h. The poor performance of LiBr/SiO 2 composite probably caused by the fact that LiBr starts to sorb methanol at Δ F ≈ 10 kJ/mol that is lower than the