To study the behavior of Italian researchers living in Italy with a view to creating appropriate policies to tackle the brain drain and discourage academics from weight in driving emigrating, we constructed a survey based on a sample of 4,700 Italian researchers (assistant professors) in several universities in Italy. The outlook is far from rosy: Italian researchers are generally dissatisfied with the economic and social situation of the country. Strong family ties represent the element keeping them at home in Italy. In this regard, no particular differences were noted between the North and South of the country. In analyzing the Italian academic system we identified factors that have greater weight in driving Italian intellectual talent to emigrate: the country's higher education system leaves all dissatisfied. Furthermore, we discovered other factors that, albeit weak, keep Italian researchers in Italy. However, one wonders how much longer family and national ties will be able to keep Italian skilled agents in Italy, and whether such dissatisfaction may jeopardize the country's future economic development.
The paper seeks to introduce the history, motivations, background and present situation of the marginal but growing African population in Hungary. It will show an East-Central European country with no record of being a colonial power in the African continent, but with significant ties to the continent through explorers and travelers, which aims to finally formulate a government policy on Africa and African development co-operation. In this effort, it considers Africans who either had obtained a university degree before 1989 at a Hungarian university, or came to the country during the democratic rule as true bridges: they can foster newly defined relations. The place, role and potentials of these African migrants in the unique Hungarian migration environment, together with attitudes towards their different groups on behalf of younger generations (high school and university students) of society will also be discussed.
Palestinian refugees have a special status under international law. Their de facto statelessness provides for the discretion of hosting nations in treating them. A significant number of displaced Palestinians and their descendants have arrived in Lebanon, which treats them as “campers” and “temporary guests”, thereby depriving them of the rights to education, to work, to buy properties; overall, to legally exist. The situation of Palestinian refugees has been subject of cultural and legal research extensively. We have attempted to add new results to the existing literature and findings: the cultural-economic aspects of the existence of semi-legal Palestinians through a time-dimension. Our paper summarizes the findings of a three-tier field-study. We started with the first wave of interviews and surveys in late 2014, then completed the second round in late 2015, and finally, finalized our research in March 2016, with several rounds of interviews. Though we also visited settlements and camps outside the capital, the overwhelming majority of our work concentrated on Beirut and the Palestinian camps therein. We observed both cultural similarities and differences between the migrants and the host population. The added value of the research is that it highlights the amplitude and pervasiveness of these impressions.
With the growing environmental crisis affecting our globe, ideas to weigh economic or social progress by the ‘energy input’ necessary to achieve it are increasingly gaining acceptance. This question is intriguing and is being dealt with by a growing number of studies, focusing on the environmental price of human progress. Even more intriguing, however, is the question of which factors of social organization contribute to a responsible use of the resources of our planet to achieve a given social result (‘smart development’). In this essay, we present the first systematic study on how migration — or rather, more concretely, received worker remittances per GDP — helps the nations of our globe to enjoy social and economic progress at a relatively small environmental price. We look at the effects of migration on the balance sheets of societal accounting, based on the ‘ecological price’ of the combined performance of democracy, economic growth, gender equality, human development, research and development, and social cohesion. Feminism in power, economic freedom, population density, the UNDP education index as well as the receipt of worker remittances all significantly contribute towards a ‘smart overall development’, while high military expenditures and a high world economic openness are a bottleneck for ‘smart overall development’.
Authors:A. Perera Pintado, S. Mather, M. Stalteri, D. Allison, A. Prats Capote, A. Hernández Cairo, O. Reyes Acosta and M. Bequet Romero
The aim of this work was to characterize the in vitro behavior of N4- and N3S-RGDS-derivative peptides labeled with 99mTc. Peptides AGGG-Abu-GRGDSPK-NH2 (F22) and C(acm)-GGG-Abu-GRGDSPK-NH2 (SMA1) were synthesized by solid phase. The stability of 99mTc-labeled peptides was assessed in a 30-fold molar excess of cysteine and in plasma. The affinity for plasma proteins was
also evaluated. Labeling yield was >95% for both peptides. 99mTc-F22 was not stable in presence of cysteine, but 63% of 99mTc remained chelated to SMA1 up to 24 hours. Both peptides showed low affinity to plasma proteins. N3S-RGDS-derivative peptide
(SMA1) showed more stable coordination binding with 99mTc and a higher stability in plasma with regard to N4-RGDS-derivative peptide (F22).
Authors:Nevenka Rajic, Djordje Stojakovic, Sanja Jevtic, Natasa Logar, Gregor Mali and Venceslav Kaucic
An open-framework aluminophosphate analog of the fluorogallophosphate structure-type ULM-3 was obtained by hydrothermal crystallization
of an aqueous aluminum phosphate suspension in the presence of 3-methylpropylamine (MAPA) and hydrofluoric acid. The open-framework
fluorinated aluminophosphate structure was confirmed by Rietveld analysis and the 27Al, 31P, and 19F MAS NMR spectroscopy. The MAPA, located in the ten-membered ring channels, is doubly protonated to balance the negative
charge of the Al3P3O12F22– framework. Thermogravimetric analysis data have been used to study kinetics of the thermal decomposition of MAPA. The decomposition
was found to be a complex process, its activation energy varied from 177 to 259 kJ mol−1. The relatively high E values are explained by the fact that the MAPA cations are bound to the anionic framework both by electrostatic forces as
well as strong N-H…O hydrogen bonds. The strength of the interactions is indirectly confirmed by the in situ high temperature
X-ray diffraction analysis which shows that the MAPA decomposition leads to a phase transformation of the open-framework structure
to the dense trydimite phase.
Let (nk)k≧1 be a lacunary sequence of positive integers, i.e. a sequence satisfying nk+1/nk > q > 1, k ≧ 1, and let f be a “nice” 1-periodic function with ∝01f(x) dx = 0. Then the probabilistic behavior of the system (f(nkx))k≧1 is very similar to the behavior of sequences of i.i.d. random variables. For example, Erdős and Gál proved in 1955 the following
law of the iterated logarithm (LIL) for f(x) = cos 2πx and lacunary
for almost all x ∈ (0, 1), where ‖f‖2 = (∝01f(x)2dx)1/2 is the standard deviation of the random variables f(nkx). If (nk)k≧1 has certain number-theoretic properties (e.g. nk+1/nk → ∞), a similar LIL holds for a large class of functions f, and the constant on the right-hand side is always ‖f‖2. For general lacunary (nk)k≧1 this is not necessarily true: Erdős and Fortet constructed an example of a trigonometric polynomial f and a lacunary sequence (nk)k≧1, such that the lim sup in the LIL (1) is not equal to ‖f‖2 and not even a constant a.e. In this paper we show that the class of possible functions on the right-hand side of (1) can
be very large: we give an example of a trigonometric polynomial f such that for any function g(x) with sufficiently small Fourier coefficients there exists a lacunary sequence (nk)k≧1 such that (1) holds with √‖f‖22 + g(x) instead of ‖f‖2 on the right-hand side.
My study is concerned with three re-discovered manuscript copies of the Thuróczy Chronicle: Cod. Pal. Germ. 156 of the Universitätsbiblithek of Heidelberg, Cod. 279 of the Burgerbibliothek of Bern, and fMS Ger 43 of Harvard University/Houghton Library. I focus on the Heidelberg manuscript, whose cycle of images of medieval Hungarian rulers has been unknown in Hungarian reference literature on art history. The Thuróczy Chronicle was first printed in 1488 in two editions: on March 20 in Brünn, and on June 3 in Augsburg. The Brünn copy is decorated with 42, the Augsburg one with 66 woodcuts, most of which portray Hungarian kings on their throne. These two cycles of illustrations are among the most important sources for the medieval iconography of Hungarian kings. The Heidelberg manuscript contains the German translation of the Thuróczy Chronicle and an epitaph of King Mathias (on the bottom of the last page). The writing belongs to one hand, apart from the epitaph. The manuscript is ornamented richly in a representative manner. In the first few pages, gold initials are ornamented with green and violet pen-and-ink drawings, later there are simpler blue and red initials. The illustration cycle consists of 41 colored pen-and-ink drawings occasionally enriched with silver and gold, showing the conquest of Hungary by the Hungarians, Attila, the seven “captains” (Árpád, Szabolcs, Gyula, Kund, Lehel, Bulcsú, Örs), and 31 kings of Hungary from Saint Stephen to King Mathias – plus János Hunyadi. The figures are the work of an experienced, though not very talented master. The background of the pictures is filled in by floral ornamental patterns reminiscent of cover paint miniatures. Apart from the one showing the Conquest, each picture is surrounded by flowers and acanthus leaves in late-gothic style, possibly (but not necessarily) the work of another master of high quality. There is a fly on the margin of page f.19v, and a fly and a dog on f.22r. The manuscript must have been made after 1488 as it is based on the Brünn edition of the Thuróczy Chronicle. If the Mathias epitaph was written at the time the manuscript was made and not afterwards, the volume must have been made after Mathias's death in 1490. The Heidelberg Chronicle belonged to the “Bibliotheca Palatina” of Heidelberg, the huge collection of books that was sacked and taken to the Vatican as a part of the spoils of war in 1623. In the Harvard manuscript, another German translation of the Thuróczy Chronicle is found, based on the printed edition from Augsburg. The manuscript had been designed to be illustrated at first, but later on (during the process of the making of the codex) this plan has been given up. In the 16th century, the manuscript belonged to the Styrian Count Ferdinand Hoffmann Freiherr von Grünpüchel. The Bern codex is the only extant manuscript of the Thuróczy Chronicle in Latin language. It had belonged to the well-known French humanist and diplomat Jacques Bongars before it found its way into the collection of the Burgerbibliothek. Apart from their intrinsic values, the three codices that have been re-discovered are especially interesting as they shed new light on the extent of interest shown by contemporaries in the history of the Hungarians and the representation of their kings.