With the growing environmental crisis affecting our globe, ideas to weigh economic or social progress by the ‘energy input’ necessary to achieve it are increasingly gaining acceptance. This question is intriguing and is being dealt with by a growing number of studies, focusing on the environmental price of human progress. Even more intriguing, however, is the question of which factors of social organization contribute to a responsible use of the resources of our planet to achieve a given social result (‘smart development’). In this essay, we present the first systematic study on how migration — or rather, more concretely, received worker remittances per GDP — helps the nations of our globe to enjoy social and economic progress at a relatively small environmental price. We look at the effects of migration on the balance sheets of societal accounting, based on the ‘ecological price’ of the combined performance of democracy, economic growth, gender equality, human development, research and development, and social cohesion. Feminism in power, economic freedom, population density, the UNDP education index as well as the receipt of worker remittances all significantly contribute towards a ‘smart overall development’, while high military expenditures and a high world economic openness are a bottleneck for ‘smart overall development’.
In the early and mid-2000s, the prospect of EU accession and the global boom facilitated rapid economic recovery and boosted economic and institutional reforms in the Western Balkan region. The global financial crisis of 2007–2009 and the European crisis of 2010–2013 slowed the pace of economic growth and amplified high unemployment in the region. In addition, various unresolved legacies from past conflicts slowed the pace of reform and progress towards EU accession.
The European Commission’s February 2018 communication sets an indicative deadline (2025) for the two most advanced candidates – Serbia’s and Montenegro’s admission to the EU. This could incentivise all Western Balkan countries, including those candidates that have not yet started membership negotiations (Macedonia and Albania) and those waiting for candidate status (Bosnia and Herzegovina and Kosovo), to remove domestic political obstacles to EU accession, solve conflicts with neighbours, speed up reforms and accelerate economic growth.
Authors:L. Błaszczyk, I. Kramer, F. Ordon, J. Chełkowski, M. Tyrka, G. Vida and I. Karsai
The set of 44 near-isogenic lines of spring wheat cv. Thatcher and wheat genotypes known to carry specific leaf rust resistance genes were included in the present study for the preliminary validation of twelve STS and SCAR markers linked to leaf rust resistance genes
Lr9, Lr19, Lr20, Lr21, Lr24, Lr25, Lr26, Lr28, Lr29, Lr37
genes were specifically tagged by STS and SCAR markers. The presence of genes
Lr9, Lr19, Lr20, Lr24, Lr28, Lr29, Lr37
in the tested plant materials was confirmed by a unique amplification of markers SCS5
, STS638, SCS73
, IPY10 and Lr29F24/R24, cslVrgal3, PS10R/L, respectively. Evaluation of the repeatability and the reliability of selected markers (pTAG621 for
, STS683 for
, D14L for
, Lr25F20/R19 for
, Lr29F24/R24, IPY10 for
, cslVrgal3 for
and PS10R/L for
) across four European laboratories and PCR conditions demonstrated the usability of STS638, Lr29F24/R24, IPY10, cslVrgal3 and PS10R/L markers in marker-assisted selection. STS markers pTAG621 for gene
, D14L for gene
, Lr25F20/R19 for gene
were found to be unsuitable for effective screening of large segregating populations in breeding programs.
A fast non-destructive determination of fluorine in bone samples by thermal neutron activation analysis using19F(n, γ)20F reaction was developed. About 0.1–1 g samples is irradiated for 15 sec in TRIGA MARK II reactor at a thermal neutron flux
of 5·1011 n·cm−2·sec−1. After 15–25 sec cooling, the 1633 KeV20F activity (T=11.2 sec) is counted for 15 sec with a Ge(Li) spectrometer. A standard sample is prepared by mixing CaF2 and CaCO3 powders. The interference from23Na(n, α)20F is corrected by employing24Na 2754 KeV double escape peak activities in samples and the20F/24Na peak area ratio observed previously for pure Na2CO3 powder. The precision is 7% for a bone sample containing 1020 ppm F and the sensitivity is about 10 ppm F.
British Columbia Centre for Disease Control: Client Counselling Guidelines For Use with Point of Care HIV Test Kits.