This article examines the impact of different exchange rate regimes on economic conditions during an external economic shock. It focuses on the recent global recession of 2008 and analyses its impact on two emerging market economies: Poland and Slovakia. These countries share many similarities, such as location, main trading partners and the general level of development. However, they differ significantly in the size of their economies and economic openness. They adopted radically different currency arrangements as well, which determined the way their economies were influenced by the economic turmoil. The article examines the role of foreign loans and the export structure as potential factors influencing the Slovak and Polish economies. Several economic indicators are analysed and compared, including trade balance, inflation, conditions in the tourism sector and credibility with the investor community. The paper argues that Poland substantially benefited from its monetary autonomy and the depreciation of the Polish Zloty. The weaker currency triggered a significant expenditure switching effect and improved the balance of trade. The membership in the Euro-zone had a blurred impact on Slovakia, it increased stability and credibility, however, it did not allow nominal adjustments to cushion the real economy.
The balance-of-payments can act as a constraint on the rate of output growth, on putting a limit to the growth in the level of demand to which supply can adapt. Regional economies might be particularly sensitive to this effect, since they are presumably more integrated among them. In this paper, we examine this issue for the case of the 17 Spanish regions over the period 1988–2009, and calculate their balance-of-payments-constrained growth rates. By comparing these balance-of-payments-constrained growth rates with the actual growth rates, we would be able to assess whether the balance-of-payments has worked as a constraint on growth.
This paper addresses the impact of fundamental (economic, political and geopolitical) uncertainties on GDP growth of the world’s largest 20 economies (W-20) using the Cobb-Douglas total production function within the scope of the second-generation panel data methodology for 1990–2016. The aim of the paper is to explore whether these uncertainties lead to a contractionary impact on growth as suggested by the economic theory. The estimation results revealed that indeed this was the case. Our results also indicate that the global uncertainties led the economic growth rates of the selected countries to perform below their exact potential since the 2008 global economic crisis and to fail to attain an expected recovery during the process.
As the world is moving ahead, all national economies need to find their own development path. The economic growth should be continually high enough to provide for a normal and growing standard of living for the citizens and, at the same time, provide opportunities for introducing and engaging the new, incoming generations in the world of business. The countries differ not only by the levels of attained development standard, but also by the possible methods which might be used for accelerating growth.The paper discusses growth factors which could help Macedonia find its way to catch up with the developed world in the long run — if this is possible. Obviously, the importance of institutions understood as the “rules of the game” and underpinning them is one of the most important issues related to development that should be seen as a conditio sine qua non and a basic prerequisite of a “developmental wave”.
This paper presents a case-study to demonstrate the calculation methods of growth contributions using structural decompositions of input-output tables and their Hungarian applications. Although the required data are available with a considerable time-lag, results show that taking backward linkages through demand for inputs and value chain multipliers into account can significantly alter the picture on the growth effects of industries and final demand categories by the conventional approach based on quarterly GDP calculations. This can be instructive for analysts and policy- and decision-makers not only in Hungary, but also in other countries. The study was performed by using public macroeconomic and sectoral data obtained from the Hungarian Central Statistical Office.
Oil-abundant countries, Iran, Iraq and the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) countries try to improve democratic institutions and to manage their chronically big governments, while experiencing decreased world oil prices. These countries pursue open door policies. Most of the foreign revenues of the region stem from oil and gas exports. Thus, how to manage the production and exports of fossil resources is of great importance. This study aims to analyse the effects of quality of democracy, government size, and the degree of openness in explaining depletion of reserves between 1985 and 2015. After testing for panel unit root and co-integration, a panel data model was estimated considering random effects. The results indicate that democratisation and political stability causes higher depletion of oil. In addition, government size affects depletion in a non-linear form, so that oil production is maximised, when government expenditure accounts for nearly 14% of GDP, on average. Furthermore, trade openness positively impacts on the oil depletion. In this case study, higher oil depletion follows strengthening democratic foundations, resizing the public sector, expanding politico-economic ties with trade partners, and applying the modern technology in the upstream oil industries.
This paper evaluates income convergence in the European Union, between “old” (EU15) and “new” member states from Central and East Europe (CEE10), and among the countries within these two groups. The GDP per capita convergence should be expected according to the exogenous economic growth model and neoclassical trade theory. The presence of σ-convergence and both absolute and conditional β-convergence is tested for on a sample of 25 European Union countries (EU25). Results confirm the existence of β-convergence of GDP per capita at purchasing power parity among EU25, but not among EU15 and CEE10 countries. σ-convergence has been confirmed among EU25 and CEE10 countries, while GDP per capita has been diverging in the EU15 group of countries. Moreover, the results reveal that recent economic crisis has reversed long-term tendencies and led to income convergence within EU15 and divergence within CEE10. During the crisis, the income differences among the EU25 countries have increased, but the scope and duration of this effect has been limited and has not affected the long term convergence path. However, the obtained long term speed of convergence is significantly lower compared with the previous researches.
It is argued that European integration has not fulfilled its chief economic promises. Output growth has been increasingly weak and unstable. Productivity growth has been following a decreasing trend. Income inequalities, both within and between the EU member states, have been rising. This sorry state of affairs is likely to continue — and likely to precipitate further exits, or eventually, the dissolution of the Union. However, this outcome is not unavoidable. A better integration in the EU is possible, at least in theory. Also, the negative consequences implicit in the existence of the common currency could be neutralised. However, the basic paradigms of the economic policies to be followed in the EU would have to be radically changed. First, the unconditional fiscal consolidation provisions still in force would have to be repelled. Second, “beggar-thy-neighbour” (or mercantilist) wage policies would have to be “outlawed”.
China is the second biggest trading nation in the world — number one as trade exporter and number two as trade importer. Behind the USA, China has the second strongest economy with a gross domestic product of almost 5 trillion USD in 2009. Despite the global financial crisis the Chinese economy was and is still drastically growing with three main focus areas: increase in labor costs; increasing demand for qualified labor; and a high grade of technology. Linked to the future 12th five-year-plan, China is going to spend 1.5 billion dollars in key-technologies like nuclear power, high speed railway systems, aerospace, energy efficiency, environmental friendly technologies, biotechnologies and information technology. China is trying to change its status from distributor to a leading high-tech provider with high potential. This implicitly means a higher consumption of natural resources and more highly qualified employees. However, the shortage of natural resources poses a great question. Prognoses say that we will need two Earths to cover our steadily rising resource consumption in 2030. To provide this, the economy has to work much more efficiently and regarding climate and resource protection even a total change is necessary. Due to this, Europe’s and China’s future will need a common economic and ecologic strategy to fulfill international requirements of sustainable growth within balanced natural circumstances.
Recently, the middle-income trap (MIT) has gained considerable attention – besides European countries, several African, Asian, and Latin-American developing countries are also affected. Many countries have remained in the middle-income bracket for decades, whilst only a few have advanced to high-income status. Felipe et al. in 2012 showed that an annual growth rate of at least 3.5 and 4.7% sustained for a period of 14 and 28 years is required respectively for upper-middle-income and lower-middle-income countries to escape the MIT. Economic growth is influenced by several factors including foreign aid received. Thus, in this study, we aim to answer the question of how aid affects economic growth in middle-income countries and whether aid may contribute to escaping the MIT. Focusing on the countries that have remained in the middle-income group between 1990 and 2017, our analysis confirms that aid contributes to economic growth; however, the impact is positive in the upper-middle-income countries and negative in the lower-middle-income countries. Aid is therefore, likely to be more effective in helping the upper-middle income countries to escape the MIT but not the lower-middle income countries.