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A driving force in Vergil’s Aeneid is the hostility of Juno to the Trojans as they approach, and finally arrive in Italy. The epic in some ways mirrors the opposition encountered by Augustus as the new ruler of Rome. Juno’s opposition to the Trojans has its origin not only in Greek mythology, but in the history of the local peoples of Italy with whom early Romans had to contend. From the outset of the poem she becomes the personification of these opposing forces. Once the Trojans finally reach mainland Italy, she sets in motion a long war, although the one depicted in the Aeneid was not as long as the real wars Romans waged with the Latin League and with the many of the tribes of Italy, including the Veii. The reality of the wars Rome had to contend with are here compared to the relatively brief one depicted in the Aeneid, and the pacification of Juno reflects the merging of the different peoples of Rome with their subjugator.

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the ancient times: Stonii (?), Fregellae, Gabii, Veii, Fidenae, which are in Italy, and, in addition, Carthage and Corinth. But ancient annals mention many armies and hostile settlements of Gauls, Spaniards, Africans, Mauritanians, and other

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On this topic, see Amoroso, A. – Di Gennaro, F.: Le fortificazioni di Fidenae e il culto dei Lari. In Preistoria e protostoria in Etruria XI . Centro studi di preistoria e archeologia, Milano 2014, 281–300; Michetti, L. M.: Riti e miti di

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touches his chest with his hands. Moreover in ancient times these towns inside Italy were taken through devotio: Stonii, Fragellae, Gabii, Veii, Fidenae, also Carthage and Corinth, but the annals speak of many armies and towns of our enemies – Gauls, Celto

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