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In the years 1994-1996 a painted vault of a house in the Roman civilian town Brigetio was excavated in present-day Komárom/Szőny, Hungary. The wall-paintings, which date back to the late 2nd-early 3rd cents. A.D., represent the personifications of the Four Seasons as female busts in the corners, four panthers in the middle of the side-walls and a circular central motive with the figure of a nude woman and a horse. On the basis of relevant astrological sources the paintings on the vault can be interpreted as symbolic representations of the spheres of the sky (the aer and the aether) and of eternity. The central medallion, which creates a delusive impression of an oculus, shows the fixed constellations Andromeda and Pegasus in the highest spheres of the sky. Parallel ideas from the Roman pagan art and the Christian / early Byzantine art indicate that the concept was widespread from the 1st to the 6th cents. A.D., being echoed also by the descriptions and illustrations in some sources of the late antiquity, like, for instance, the Christian Topography of Cosmas Indicopleustes.

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Flameless atomic absorption techniques were used to determine the lead and other atmospheric particulate in the city of Tehran. 640 samples were collected in 20 different stations around the city during four seasons in 1992. The radioactivity of the air samples was also measured by -ray spectrometry using high purity Ge/Li detectors, and a multichannel analyzer. The results were compared with previous measurements in the city of Tehran.

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Thirtynine surface water and 20 deep sediment samples were taken in different locations in Keban Dam Lake (Elazig, Turkey) to identify major sources and assess major elements, heavy metals, 137Cs, 90Sr, total alpha- and, total beta-distribution in 2003 and 2004 in four seasons each year. As a preliminary study heavy metal (Zn, Fe, Mn, Ni, Cu, Cr, and Co), major element (Mg, Ca, Na, K) and radioactivity concentrations of 137Cs, 90Sr, total-a and total-b in the surface water and deep sediments were determined.

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This paper presents a case study of radioactive pollution of groundwater caused by leachate from an open landfill. Alpha- and beta-radioactivity analysis of the leachate from different points in the region and associated fountain water from a village down stream were carried out during four seasons. The alpha- and beta-radioactivity concentrations were under the detection limit in all samples and ranged between 0.07 and 2.17 Bq/l, respectively. The beta-radioactivity concentration from 129I, 137Cs and 90Sr individual radioisotopes were determined and their annual effective dose was calculated.

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Abstract  

7Be deposition fluxes and atmospheric concentrations were measured at Rokkasho Village, Aomori Prefecture, Japan, from 2000 to 2005. It was confirmed that the 7Be deposition fluxes were minimum in summer, and the fallout maximizes in winter. The atmospheric concentration of 7Be was especially low in summer, and high in the other three seasons. A positive correlation was observed between the amount of precipitation and 7Be deposition. Clear seasonal differences were evident among the ratios of 7Be deposition flux to precipitation amounts in the four seasons. The ratios were especially high in winter, higher than those in the other three seasons. 7Be deposition flux was estimated by a simple simulation model using atmospheric 7Be concentrations and local meteorological data. As a result, the estimated deposition value was relatively lower than the measured value in winter.

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Abstract  

In various samples of Mytilus galloprovincialis, 210Po was determined by alpha-spectrometry while Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd, Sn, Hg and Pb by energy dispersive, polarised X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (EDPXRF). The mussels of different sizes were taken from 7 sites in the central Adriatic Sea along the Marche coastal region during the four seasons of the year. 210Po activity concentration ranged between 57 and 343 Bq·kg−1 dry weight. The concentration ranges of heavy metals (µg·g−1 dry weight) were as follows: Mn: 72.9–83.1; Fe: 45.1–754; Ni: 1.3–7.6; Cu: 17.9–156; Zn: 60.9–189; Cd: 0.6–1.0; Sn: 0.6–3.9; Hg always <0.5; Pb: 2.0–9.0. The data obtained depend upon the site and the period of the sampling and they are also compared with those obtained by other authors for the same organism in the Mediterranean and other Italian seas.

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The article is intended to analyse the temporal and spatial structure unfolding in the book "My Sister - Life". The temporal structure of the book is built on the succession of the four seasons. The seasons - and at times the months as well - have well-defined meanings in Pasternak's poetic system. The temporal structure of the book follows the cyclical order of the calendar year, and the events of a "love story" represent a linear progress in time. Furthermore, in the artistic composition of the book another type of chronology can be revealed, which can be described with the Bergsonian category of internal time, durée. What is crucial and vital for the lyrical hero is the internal correspondence of experiences and phenomena, which interrupts the linear progress of the narrative, as opposed to the external, rational and linear order of things.   The spatial structure of the book can be analysed with the help of the voyage motif. Parallel with travelling in the external world a voyage takes place in the internal realm of the lyrical hero's creative memory. The category of time and space are inseparable, interwoven in the course of the voyage and the unfolding of memories. In other words, events that can originally be characterised in temporal terms occur and evolve in the external space, which can be regarded as a poetical reinterpretation of an archaic, mythological space-time model.

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Oka, H. I. (1967): Adaptability for seasons and locations and yield stability in crop varieties, its mechanism and selection. Recent Advances in Breeding , 8, 42-47. Adaptability for seasons and locations and yield stability

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Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry
Authors:
N. Manikandan
,
S. Selvasekarapandian
,
R. Sivakumar
,
V.M. Raghunath
,
V.M. Sundaram
, and
S. Santhanam

Abstract  

Measurement of concentration of radon and thoron daughter products in various indoor environment covering four seasons of a year in Udagamandalam Taluk of Nilgiris biosphere has been carried out using a high volume air sampler to asses the inhalation dose to the population which delivers higher dose than the radon and thoron gas alone. The potential alpha-energy concentrations of the radon and thoron progeny ranged from 0.97 to 12.72 mWL and from 1.63 to 15.83 mWL with a geometric mean of 6.02 and 7.89 mWL, respectively, taking all seasons into account. These measurements have yielded a wealth of data on the variation among the indoor radon and thoron progeny in various places during different seasons. The radon and thoron progeny levels are higher in winter seasons and are less in summer season with autumn and spring data lie in between winter and summer. Using the dose conversion factor for indoor exposures given in UNSCEAR 93 report the internal equivalent dose to the inhalation of radon progeny is evaluated to be 1357 mSv.y–1 and the corresponding annual effective dose equivalent value has been found to be 2.13 mSv.y–1. It can be observed that the mean value of radon is higher than the Indian average. Also it is found the radon and thoron progeny levels are higher in the case of houses built with rock and granite and in tiled type houses of nearly 100 years old. The levels are less in the case of houses built with brick and cement. The observed results for different types of houses and seasons are discussed in this paper.

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The study deals with the application of cluster analysis (CA) and non-parametric tests (Shapiro–Wilk, Kruskal–Wallis, Dunn, U Mann–Whitney) to classify and interpret of a monitoring data set for Odra River water quality assessment based on concentration values of radiochemical parameters. The data set represents results for 3 alpha emitters (210Po, 238U and 239+240Pu) measured in surface water samples collected at 13 different sampling locations (5 in major Odra stream while 8 in Odra tributaries) within four seasons: winter, spring, summer and autumn, in the framework of 1 year-term quality monitoring research. The correlation analysis of polonium, uranium and plutonium data indicates that significant values of Spearman’s correlation coefficient appears between 210Po and 239+240Pu (r = 0.55 in autumn and 0.77 in winter as well as 0.49 in all year), while statistical significant correlation between uranium and plutonium as well as uranium and polonium were not found. In the Odra drainage basin, the biggest differences were observed in the case of 238U. The hypothesis about possible geographic and seasonal differences between concentration of 210Po, 238U and 239+240Pu in the Odra River catchment area was verified by cluster analysis (CA). Finally, to asses if there are statistically significant differences in mean concentration value of 210Po, 238U and 239+240Pu for Vistula and Odra Rivers drainage basins were obtained by used of the non-parametric tests. Comparing to Vistula catchment area, statistically different concentration of 210Po and 239+240Pu in all year was observed for river samples collected on Odra drainage basin.

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