The German philosopher Friedrich Nietzsche (1844–1900) briefly mentioned world literature twice in his work, once in Die Geburt der Tragödie aus dem Geiste der Musik (The Birth of Tragedy out of the Spirit of Music), first published in 1872, then later in Jenseits von Gut und Böse (Beyond Good and Evil) of 1886. Both mentions are puzzling, ambivalent, allusive, and in need of hermeneutic explication. They ask the “big question”
of world literature, namely what consolation (Trost) it can provide modern man. This essay examines Nietzsche’s discussion
in light of the (substantially different) overall arguments of the two works, and of the potential sources for Nietzsche’s
idea of world literature. It then turns to later writers who, at times under the direct influence of Nietzsche, have examined
world literature under a similar optic.
The Monk by the Sea stands alone in the oeuvre of Caspar David Friedrich. Unlike the majority of his works, which are generally overburdened with meaning, making them easy to understand from a Romantic, Christian or nationalist perspective, this painting remained resistant to interpretation by almost all of his contemporaries – even by the artist himself – because the reduction and “minimalism” in the work was so unprecedented and extreme that it would take several generations before it became common practice. This was also the first work to feature Friedrich’s famous innovation, the Rückenfigur, the picture’s internal spectator, who forms a close and subjective bond with the external spectator, while the subject of the spectacle itself, for the very first time in the history of painting, is “nothing”.
. Friedrich , M. ( 2019 ): Sklon nadnárodních entit k přesouvání zisků [Tendency of multinational entities to shift profits] . Prague : University of Economics . Fuest , C. – Riedel , N. ( 2009 ): Tax Evasion, Tax avoidance and Tax Expenditures in
Authors:J. Martir, O. Bozdagi, G. Martinelli, V. Friedrich, and Gay Holstein
Bozdagi, O., Martinelli, G. P., Prell, G. D., Friedrich, V. L. J., Huntley, G. W., Holstein, G. R. (2011) Imidazoleacetic acid-ribotide induces depression of synaptic responses in hippocampus through activation of Imidazoline receptors. J. Neurophysiol