In this study a Kuwaiti camel rotavirus strain, RVA/Camel-wt/KUW/s21/2010/G10P, is characterized by sequencing and phylogenetic analysis. The strain had multiple genes with high nucleotide sequence similarities to ovine and bovine strains (VP2, ≤ 96%; NSP2 and NSP5, ≤ 97%, NSP3, ≤ 94%), or, to porcine strains (VP1, ≤ 89%). Other genes had moderate sequence similarities (VP4, ≤ 87%; VP6, ≤ 81%; VP7, ≤ 82%) with reference strains from ruminants. The NSP4 gene shared limited sequence identity (≤ 71%) with other mammalian and avian rotavirus NSP4 types, and was designated a novel genotype, E15. This study demonstrates genetic diversity in the outer capsid and some backbone genes of an old-world camelid rotavirus strain and uncovers its common evolutionary roots with strains from other ruminants.
One of the many consequences of financialization in the past decades has been the significant appreciation of the importance of financial markets' liquidity. In order to maintain financial stability, one must have a clear understanding of the sources of market liquidity (ML). A finer comprehension of liquidity and its direction would help policy makers in fine-tuning the current regulations while also identifying each of the elements that compose it. In this paper, a recursive vector autoregressive model is utilized to empirically analyze how to detect the causality relations between funding and ML in four post-communist countries (Czech Republic, Hungary, Slovakia and Poland). For the analyses freely accessible data on the balance sheets of aggregated banking sectors was utilized with the overall aim of finding a proxy for funding liquidity (FL) in every examined country. As a proxy for ML, government bonds' bid-ask spreads were utilized in the model. The paper provides an empirical evidence that FL drives ML in each economy. The results are clear, statistically significant and robust. They can be understood as evidence for the importance of the role of the trader's FL for the liquidity of financial assets' markets. The results of the paper have important implications for monetary policy, as well as micro- and macro-prudential regulation.
The article discusses the ability of potential growth measures calculated basing on market share prices to predict the future growth of the companies listed on the primary and alternative exchange markets in Poland. Analysing the Polish exchange market and dividing the sample of companies due to the markets they are listed – the Warsaw Stock Exchange Main Market or the NewConnect Alternative Market – brought conclusive results. Company growth measured as the growth of total assets, equity, sales and, what is the most important, earnings per share, is related to the growth opportunity measures and other factors taken into account in the tested models. The differences between the results for the two separate markets are evident and the relationship between growth opportunity measures and the future growth seems to be stronger for larger companies listed on the main market, while the NewConnect smaller companies’ growth is less predictable. We add to the theory of the growth prediction a modified approach by sampling companies according to the exchange they are listed that helps to solve the companies’ “growth puzzle” and supplement the growth theory in the field of factors affecting this process in different growth stages. The originality of the paper is reflected in the modified approach to the problem and distinguishing the stages of development of the company taking into account the Polish stock market.
We examine the determinants of the overall sales rates at art auctions in Turkey. We use a unique dataset that covers 79 auctions that took place between January 2005 and February 2008. After controlling for auction house differences, seasonal factors and the price levels of the auctions, we find that the expectations about the economic developments and consumption patterns play an important role in explaining the sales rates differentials across different auctions taking place over time.
This article tests the role the Slovenian capital market plays in determining corporate capital structure. It concludes that even though private corporations exhibit higher relative debt levels than their public counterparts, their dynamics are governed in similar ways. One potential reason for that is the country’s poorly developed primary capital market, which creates similar external barriers to raising capital. The article highlights factors that cause this situation and provides guidelines for capital market regulators in (post-)transition economies about related issues to address. This facilitates the design of financial systems and legal environments in a way that helps create a well-functioning primary capital market, i.e. a cost-efficient mechanism to raise new financial sources and to help achieve the efficient allocation of funds in the economy.
The case for taxing financial transactions merely to raise more revenues from the financial sector is not particularly strong. Better alternatives to tax the financial sector are likely to be available. However, a tax on financial transactions could be justified in order to limit socially undesirable transactions when more direct means of doing so are unavailable for political or practical reasons. Some financial transactions are indeed likely to do more harm than good, especially when they contribute to the systemic risk of the financial system. However, such a financial transaction tax should be very small, much smaller than the negative externalities in question, because it is a blunt instrument that also drives out socially useful transactions. There is a case for taxing over-the-counter derivative transactions at a somewhat higher rate than exchange-based derivative transactions. More targeted remedies to drive out socially undesirable transactions should be sought in parallel, which would allow, after their implementation, to reduce or even phase out financial transaction taxes.
The literature has not settled down on safe haven property of gold in the emerging and developing countries. Therefore, we revisit the international evidence on hedging and safe haven role of gold for 34 emerging and developing countries with a span of daily data covering January 2000–November 2018. We employ the GARCH-copula approach to estimate the lower-tail extreme dependencies of the joint distribution of gold and equity returns. We also introduce a new definition for the strong safe haven property of an asset. Our findings indicate that while gold serves as a hedging instrument for all countries in our sample, we got evidence of weak safe haven property for gold, for domestic investors, only in 20 countries, and a strong safe haven asset (SHA) only in 9 countries.
) performed between 1 and 9 repetitions, and Group 10+ (G10+, n = 26) performed over 10 repetitions. The differences among the three groups for age, height, body mass, body mass index (BMI), body composition, aLM, abdominal MT, HGS, and physical performance
The aim of this paper is to investigate the impact of banks’ sovereign debt exposures on the financial development of Turkey. Results of the bounds test reveal a long-run and negative equilibrium relationship between banks’ domestic claims on sovereign and financial development, while Granger causality tests display a unidirectional causation from domestic debt to financial depth. Furthermore, stochastic frontier estimations provide evidence for the existence of cost inefficiency channel from government debt portfolios to financial development. The results suggest a need for more conscientious fiscal policy and country specific prudential regulation design for the financial development of Turkey.
Measuring the financial efficiencies of mutual funds in emerging markets has played an important role in finance literature. Charnes et al. (1978) advocated Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA), a valuable mathematical programming technique, which is used to measure the technical, pure and scale efficiencies of decision making units. The general form of DEA is the CCR model that depends on the assumption of constant returns to scale. Subsequently, Banker et al. (1984) developed an alternative DEA model which includes a variable returns to scale approach. The aim of this study is to measure and compare the financial efficiencies of Turkish securities and pension funds in the 2006–2007 period. In this respect, 36 securities mutual funds (SMFs) and 41 pension mutual funds (PMFs) have been evaluated comparatively according to classical portfolio performance measures and DEA models. Results from performance indices and DEA models reveal that PMFs have higher portfolio performances and financial efficiencies than SMFs in the 2006–2007 period. However, SMFs and PMFs have shown considerable increases in efficiency in the 2006–2007 period according to CCR and BCC models. Of the 77 funds studied, 23 funds in 2007 and 20 funds in 2006 demonstrated scale efficiency. Furthermore, the input ratios should be considerably improved for 2006 and 2007. But, mostly the output values of the funds were found to have remained unchanged in the case of PMFs and SMFs in 2007. The output ratios for 2006 should be considerably improved, especially in the case of SMFs. Finally, the DEA method is evaluated as a substantial quantitative tool for investors in analysing the financial efficiencies of funds in the capital markets.