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Acta Oeconomica
Authors: Milica Latinovic, Vesna Bogojevic Arsic, and Milica Bulajic

This article examines volatility spillover among Western Balkan’s stock markets and selected developed markets. If there is an evidence of weak linkage between various markets, then there are potential benefits that could arise from international diversification. However, if we analyse the relationship between two markets that are different in terms of their economic development, and if there is a strong connection between them, market shocks from the developed markets can have an impact on the frontier/emerging markets. Market integration can be indicated with returns linkage and transmission of shocks and volatility between markets. Hence, this can have implications for investment strategies. It is found that there is statistically significant regional spillover between countries of the Western Balkan region. Also, there is global spillover between developed markets and this region as well. Furthermore, there is evidence that Western Balkan’s markets are late in response to important market events, and that can be used when formulating investment strategy.

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This study investigates the transmission mechanism of price and volatility spillovers across the Budapest, Warsaw, Prague, Bucharest, and Zagreb stock markets in the pre- and post-financial crisis periods under the framework of the multivariate Exponential Generalized Autoregressive Conditional Heteroskedasticity (EGARCH) model. By using daily closing prices, the results highlight certain interesting findings. I found evidence of price spillovers of the intraregional linkages among the stock price movements in five countries. This analysis shows the existence of bi-directional volatility spillovers between stock markets of the Czech Republic and Croatia in the pre-crisis period, and between Hungary and Romania in the post-crisis period. Also, there are significant volatility spillovers from Croatia to Poland and from Poland to the Czech Republic during two periods. The volatility is found to respond asymmetrically to innovations in other markets. The findings also indicate that the stock markets are more substantially integrated into crisis, as well as the persistence of volatility spillovers between the stock markets increases, and the financial stock markets become more integrated after the crisis period.

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Acta Oeconomica
Authors: Francisco Jareño, María de la O González, Marta Tolentino, and Sara Rodríguez

This paper studies the sensitivity of share prices of Spanish companies included in the IBEX-35 to changes in different explanatory variables, such as market returns, interest rates and factors proposed by Fama and French (1993, 2015) between 2000 and 2016. In addition, for robustness, this paper analyses whether the sensitivity of stock returns is different between two periods: precrisis and recent financial crisis. The results confirm that, in general, all the considered factors are relevant. Furthermore, “market return” and “size” factors show greater explanatory power, together with the “value” factor in the crisis period. Regarding the analysis at sector level, “Oil and Energy”, “Basic Materials, Industry and Construction” and “Financial and Real Estate Services” sectors appear to be highly sensitive to changes in the risk factors included in the asset pricing factor model.

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In the empirical finance literature most frequently monthly returns are applied for measuring fund performance or testing market efficiency. We propose a new return calculation method, the daily recalculated monthly returns which has not been used in academic studies for asset pricing purposes. We argue that our method outperforms daily and monthly return calculations in the case of Hungarian mutual funds when only short time series are available. Daily recalculated monthly returns induce the best fitting property of the market model while the time series remain sufficiently long to derive asymptotic tests even when we work on a one-year-long time series. Using our method the estimated parameters and the R 2 s are very close to the results obtained when using monthly returns which are considered a good working approximation.

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The risk of individual investment in higher education is not a well-researched topic compared to the rate of return to education. In many countries tuition fees are low, but there is a possibility to borrow for investment in education. This can lead to irresponsible investment behaviour. The paper will show that the student loan market is too small to cause a macroeconomic crisis, but that it is a market with many stakeholders and irresponsible behaviour should not be encouraged. With the examination of a Hungarian sample, it can be concluded that in the context of higher education, signs of rational investment behaviour can be found. The risks of post-secondary studies are not yet fully understood and measured, and for this reason further research is suggested.

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Much empirical research has been carried out to test the presence of contagion in European sovereign debt crisis since the beginning of 2010. In this paper I will consider contagion as a change in the transmission mechanism of shock, illustrating co-movement among the sovereign credit default swap (CDS) markets of seven European countries and the UK from November 2008 up until June 2013. By examining daily pricing data of the five-year sovereign CDS contracts of these countries, I found a large increase in the volatility in the period of crisis, and hence a correlation test is invalid, but parametric method with GARCH residual time series and quantile regression approach are applicable. The first test modelling time series’ residuals by GARCH formula shows no contagion. In the second method, slope equality tests analyse the stability in linear relationship among markets across quantile and find no evidence of contagion. This final result of no contagion during the debt crisis suggests that the reason of the sovereign risk’s propagation is the conventional interdependence among countries, not the greatness of the shock.

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The literature has not settled down on safe haven property of gold in the emerging and developing countries. Therefore, we revisit the international evidence on hedging and safe haven role of gold for 34 emerging and developing countries with a span of daily data covering January 2000–November 2018. We employ the GARCH-copula approach to estimate the lower-tail extreme dependencies of the joint distribution of gold and equity returns. We also introduce a new definition for the strong safe haven property of an asset. Our findings indicate that while gold serves as a hedging instrument for all countries in our sample, we got evidence of weak safe haven property for gold, for domestic investors, only in 20 countries, and a strong safe haven asset (SHA) only in 9 countries.

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This paper analyses the pricing of sovereign risk and contagion during the crises in the Central and Eastern European countries. Panel data are used to estimate the determinants of government bond spreads in three different time periods: before the crisis, during the global financial crisis, and during the European debt crisis. The econometric model includes interactions between the explanatory variables and the crisis dummies. This specification enables the coefficients to change during the crises. The empirical analysis confirms a statistically significant relationship between sovereign risk and macroeconomic fundamental variables. Additionally, the results suggest an increase in the importance of macroeconomic fundamentals during the financial crisis. The analysis also supports that sovereign credit ratings and exchange rate risk have a significant impact on government bond spreads.

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Rating the reliability of banks has always been an important practical problem for businesses and the economic policy makers. The best way to do this is the CAMEL analysis. The aim of this paper was to create a bank-rating indicator from the five fields of the CAMEL analysis using two-two indicators for each field for the Turkish Islamic banking system. According to the results of the analysis, we could rank the Turkish Islamic banks. Beside the widespread use of the CAMEL analysis, we applied the Similarity Analysis as a new method. We compared the results from the two methods and came to the conclusion that the CAMEL analysis does not adequately provide a fairly shaded picture about the banks. The Component-based Object Comparison for Objectivity (COCO) method gave us the yearly results in time series form. The comparison of the time series data leads to the problem of deciding about what is more important for us – average, standard deviation or the slope. For handling this problem, we used Analytic Hierarchy Process, which gave weights to these indicators.

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This investigation is one of the first to adopt quantile regression (QR) technique to examine covariance risk dynamics in international stock markets. Feasibility of the proposed model is demonstrated in G7 stock markets. Additionally, two conventional random-coefficient frameworks, including time-varying betas derived from GARCH models and state-varying betas implied by Markov-switching models, are employed and subjected to comparative analysis. The empirical findings of this work are consistent with the following notions. First, the beta smile (beta skew) curve for the Italian, U.S. and U.K. (Canadian, French and German) markets. That is, covariance risk among global stock markets in extremely bull and/or bear market states is significantly higher than in stable periods. Additionally, the Japanese market provides a special case, and its beta estimate at extremely bust state is significantly lower, not higher than that at the middle region. Second, the quantile-varying betas are identified as possessing two key advantages. Specifically, the comparison of the system with quantile-varying betas against that with time-varying betas implied by GARCH models provides meaningful implications for correlation-volatility relationship among international stock markets. Furthermore, the quantile-varying beta design in this study relaxes a simple dual beta setting implied by Markov-switching models of Ramchand — Susmel (1998) and can identify dynamics of asymmetry in betas.

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