Authors:E. Matteoli, L. Lepori, T. Usacheva, and V. Sharnin
The influence of H2O–EtOH and H2O–Acetone mixed solvents at various compositions on the thermodynamics of complex formation reaction between crown ether 18-crown-6
(18C6) and glycine (Gly) was studied. The standard thermodynamic parameters of the complex [Gly18C6] (log K°, ΔrH°, ΔrS°) were calculated from thermochemical data at 298.15 K obtained by titration calorimetry. The complex stability and its formation
enthalpy increase with increasing the non aqueous component concentration in both mixed solvents. The thermodynamic data were
discussed on the basis of the solvation thermodynamic approach and the solvation contributions of the reagents and of the
complex to the complex stability were analyzed.
This paper shows the principal features of merger control in selected transition economies of Central and Eastern Europe (CEE), namely Hungary, Romania and Slovenia, by applying case study methodology. The presented findings are based on the analysis of Hungarian, Romanian and Slovenian competition law and merger rulings reached by the Competition Offices of these countries. A substantial part of the conclusions is drawn from a sample of 42 merger applications processed by the Office of Economic Competition of Hungary between 1994 and 2000. The results of empirical analysis demonstrate the considerable flexibility of merger control in the studied countries, its orientation towards the future of domestic markets and a close link with industrial policy. The paper also highlights the areas of interdependence of competition policy and transition and argues that merger control in the studied CEE countries may be regarded as currently adequate to the requirements imposed by transition.
In 2008, Hungary was heavily hit by the global financial crisis, and had to turn to the IMF among the first. The paper analyses the road leading to the post-Lehman liquidity crisis from the point of view of Magyar Nemzeti Bank (MNB), the central bank of Hungary. Based on the minutes and the press releases* of the Monetary Council (MC), a comprehensive account is given why the puzzle was put together too late.
To join the Eurozone (EZ), a candidate country has to fulfil five nominal Maastricht convergence criteria and ensure compliance of national legislation with the acquis communautaire. With this regard special difficulties pose the fiscal criterion relating to the maximum allowed budget deficit of 3 per cent of GDP. If it is not met, the European Commission launches the Excessive Deficit Procedure. Currently, such formula applies to France, Spain and the United Kingdom. Although the issue is not absolutely certain, one can assume that euro will weather the present difficulties and will come out stronger, though the economically unjustified Euro scepticism of some countries is not helping. It may be expected that in the 2020s the European Monetary Union will be joined by all countries that are still using their national currencies and that the EU will be extended to include new member states, enlarging the euro area further. In this article authors are discussing the issue whether Poland will join the EZ in the coming years, considering the challenges of meeting all Maastricht criteria, on the one hand, and the reluctance of the government to give up the national currency, on the other. A mixed method combining the results of qualitative and quantitative research has been used to empirically verify the research question presented.
Looking back to the global financial crisis of 2008–2009, Hungary was among the first countries to be forced to make use of financial assistance from the EU and the IMF. The government, the MNB (the central bank of Hungary) as well as the domestic and foreign analysts cited the high public debt and the volume of unsecured foreign-currency loans as the main reasons for the crises. Though these were real weaknesses, this diagnosis was false as much as the following treatment. First and foremost, it was the inadequate level of foreign exchange reserves that made Hungary to request outside financial assistance.
The excessive fiscal tightening urged by the MNB only led to deepening of the crises. In general, the macropolicy – both fiscal and monetary policy – before, during and after the crises turned out to be painfully pro-cyclical. Due to the lack of sufficient reserves, the MNB became virtually powerless to intervene and could only watch from the side-lines as events unfolded. The orthodox mind-set after replenishing the forex reserves prevented it from implementing a broad scale of unconventional measures to ease the crises. The fiscal authority lost its capacity long before to reduce the severity of the crises. Thus, the excessive and incorrect structure of fiscal correction coupled with an unjustified orthodox monetary policy, the contraction of the Hungarian economy went much beyond the inevitable amount.
Authors:Nida Handoo, Mujeeb Ur Rehman Fazili, Mohammad Abrar Gayas, Hakim Athar, and Raja Tariq
of gel. It was kept static after focusing at the nearest border of the cyst. A sterile hypodermic needle (G-18) attached to a 10.0-mL sterile Dispovan syringe was passed via the anaesthetised site (perpendicular to the transducer plan) till it crossed
The - and -radiolysis of cyclopentane were compared in the presence and absence of iodine scavenger. The G-values of the main hydrocarbon products, cyclopentene and bicyclopentyl are 2.22 and 0.56 molecule/100 eV in -radiolysis and 3.25 and 1.23, respectively, in -radiolysis. During high LET -irradiation the yields of products formed by a radical mechanism are much smaller (G=1.18) than in -radiolysis (G=2.68), whereas unimolecular cyclopentene formation is hardly influenced by LET (G=1.8 and 1.6, respectively).
Authors:Aliakbar Dehno Khalaji, Smail Triki, and Debasis Das
634–908 K, in the third stage, corresponding to the loss of one iodide atom and one HC=N group (≈152 g, 18.41%). In the last stage, complex 1 shows a weight loss of 17.68% (≈145.93 g) in the temperature range 908–1010 K, corresponding to the loss of
Authors:Alina Vattai and Nikoletta Rozgonyi-Boissinot
values, e.g., 18–20) established by Barton and Choubey ( 1977 ). It is simple to use, but it is quite difficult to estimate the correct average JRC value of the joint surface because visual comparison is subjective and three values are associated with