Authors:B. Vaezi, A. Pour-Aboughadareh, R. Mohammadi, M. Armion, A. Mehraban, T. Hossein-Pour, and M. Dorii
Successful production and development of stable and adaptable cultivars only depend on the positive results achieved from the interaction between genotype and environment that consequently has significant effect on breeding strategies. The objectives of this study were to evaluate genotype by environment interactions for grain yield in barley advanced lines and to determine their stability and general adaptability. For these purposes, 18 advanced lines along with two local cultivars were evaluated at five locations (Gachsaran, Lorestan, Ilam, Moghan and Gonbad) during three consecutive years (2012–2015). The results of the AMMI analysis indicated that main effects due to genotype (G), environment (E) and GE interaction as well as four interaction principal component axes were significant, representing differential responses of the lines to the environments and the need for stability analysis. According to AMMI stability parameters, lines G5 and G7 were the most stable lines across environments. Biplot analysis determined two barley mega-environments in Iran. The first mega-environment contained of Ilam and Gonbad locations, where the recommended G13, G19 and G1 produced the highest yields. The second mega-environment comprised of Lorestan, Gachsarn and Moghan locations, where G2, G9, G5 and G7 were the best adapted lines. Our results revealed that lines G5, G7, G9 and G17 are suggested for further inclusion in the breeding program due to its high grain yield, and among them G5 recommended as the most stable lines for variable semi-warm and warm environments. In addition, our results indicated the efficiency of AMMI and GGE biplot techniques for selecting genotypes that are stable, high yielding, and responsive.
Authors:Seyed Mohammad Nasir Mousavi, Károly Kith, and János Nagy
Hungary was one of the main countries in the world as regards the yields reached in maize production. The research was conducted to appraise the effect of NPK fertilizer on traits of different hybrid maize (Fao410, Fao340) at the University of Debrecen and our experiment was carried out in Centre for Agricultural Sciences, Institute of Crop Sciences at Látókép in 2018. NPK fertilizer was applied in six different combinations (0-0-0 control, 30-23-27 first dose, 60-46-54 second dose, 90-69-81 third dose, 120-92-108 fourth dose and 150-115-135 fifth dose kg · ha−1). The result of compound variance showed the level of fertilizer and interaction between fertilizer and genotypes were significant in one percent. Effect of genotypes was a variable level of fertilizer and providing a different yield in the level of fertilizer. The weight of seeds in ear and weight of ear were important traits in the average yield on Fao410 hybrid. Also, the fourth of the fertilizer level was the best level of fertilizer for yield on Fao410 and Fao340. the weight of fresh plant and weight of seeds in ear were highest relation with yield in H340 hybrid. The results of this research can successfully contribute to the science of maize cultivars, the given adapted hybrid to the discovery of their traits and to an application of fertilizers.
The present study was conducted to determine the reactions of 88 bread wheat pure lines selected from landraces collected in Central Anatolian Region of Turkey against leaf rust (Puccinia triticina) under field conditions in 7 locations. GGE biplot analysis was used to determine the reactions of landrace genotypes against the disease. The GGE biplot explained 73.89% of total variation. Among the experimental locations, 6 (except for E3) were placed close to each other over the biplot graph, indicating two apparent mega-environments. The GGE biplot visually displayed the resistance and stability of the pure lines to leaf rust. The landrace genotypes L18, L19, L45, and L2 were identified as the most resistant/stable genotypes in all environments and L31 and L56 were the most susceptible/stable genotypes.
Authors:K. Taibi, F. Bentata, S. Rehman, M. Labhilili, A. El Aissami, R. P. S. Verma, and S. Gyawali
Pyrenophora teres f. teres (Ptt), causing net blotch in barley, is an important and frequently isolated leaf pathogen across the globe. The virulence spectrum of Ptt from North Africa including Morocco is poorly understood. Sixteen barley genotypes were challenged, at seedling stage, with 15 Ptt isolates that were collected from different agroecological zones of Morocco. The experiment was conducted in a factorial arrangement of treatments in a randomized complete block design with three replicates. The ANOVA revealed highly significant (P < 0.001) effects of genotype (G), isolate (I) and G×I interaction explaining 23.2, 62.5, and 13.9% of the variation, respectively. Therefore, the current study revealed highly diverse virulence pattern of Moroccan isolates. Furthermore, the results indicated that minor virulence of Ptt isolates dominated over virulence interaction. In addition, Taffa (6-rowed) and Aglou (2 rowed), had the highest level of resistance to Ptt, while Coast and Rabat071 were the most susceptible genotypes. Pt2, Pt7, Pt8 and Pt4 were being the most virulent isolates, while Pt10 and Pt11 were the least virulent isolates. The emergence of the new Ptt pathotypes, which were highly virulent to durable resistance in Rabat071 posed a risk of breaking down the currently deployed resistance to net blotch in Morocco. A careful evaluation and selection of Ptt isolates based on minor virulence pattern to barley genotypes is essential for successful barley breeding program for resistance to net blotch in Morocco.