Authors:J. Li, W. Dai, G. Xiao, H. Wang, Z. Zhang, and T. Wu
99Tc is an important radionuclides related to repository safety assessment. The mobility pertechnetate (TcO4−) can be reduced to immobility technetium(IV) hydrous oxides (TcO2·nH2O) by Fe(II)-bearing minerals. In China, Gaomiaozi (GMZ) bentonite is regarded as the favorable candidate backfilling material
for the HLW repository, which is contained some FeO. The diffusion behavior of 99Tc was investigated in GMZ bentonite by through- and out-diffusion methods. The effective diffusion coefficient (De), the accessible porosity (εacc), apparent diffusion coefficient (Da) and distribution coefficient (Kd) were decreased with the increasing of dry density. The De values were (2.8 ± 0.2) × 10−11 m2/s and (3.5 ± 0.2) × 10−12 m2/s at dry density of 1,600 and 1,800 kg/m3, respectively. It was indicated that the dominating species was TcO4− during the diffusion processing. While, out-diffusion results showed that part of TcO4− may be reduced by Fe(II). The relationship of De and εacc could be described by Archie’s law with exponent n = 2.4 for 99Tc diffusion in GMZ bentonite. Furthermore, the relationship between Da and dry density (ρ) was exponential.
Authors:T. Wu, W. Dai, G. Xiao, F. Shu, J. Yao, and J. Li
With the low permeability and high swelling property, Gaomiaozi (GMZ) bentonite is regarded as the favorable candidate backfilling
material for a potential repository. The diffusion behaviors of HTO in GMZ bentonite were studied to obtain effective diffusion
coefficient (De) and accessible porosity (ε) by through- and out-diffusion experiments. A computer code named Fitting for diffusion coefficient
(FDP) was used for the experimental data processing and theoretical modeling. The De and ε values were (5.2–11.2) × 10−11 m2/s and 0.35–0.50 at dry density from 1,800 to 2,000 kg/m3, respectively. The De values at 1,800 kg/m3 was a little higher than that of at 2,000 kg/m3, whereas the De value at 1,600 kg/m3 was significantly higher (approximately twice) than that of at 1,800 and 2,000 kg/m3. It may be explained that the diffusion of HTO mainly occurred in the interlayer space for the highly compacted clay (dry
density exceeding 1,300 kg/m3). 1,800 and 2,000 kg/m3 probably had similar interlayer space, whereas 1,600 kg/m3 had more. Both De and ε values decreased with increasing dry density. For compacted bentonite, the relationship of De and ε could be described by Archie’s law with exponent n = 4.5 ± 1.0.
Authors:Yonggui Chen, Chunming Zhu, Yanhong Sun, Huiying Duan, Weimin Ye, and Dongbei Wu
Bentonite has been studied extensively because of its strong adsorption capacity. A local Na-bentonite named GMZ bentonite,
collected from Gaomiaozi County (Inner Mongolia, China), was selected as the first choice of buffer/backfill material for
the high-level radioactive waste repository in China. In this research, the adsorption of La (ΙΙΙ) onto GMZ bentonite was
performed as a function of contact time, pH, solid content and metal ion concentrations by using the batch experiments. The
results indicate that the adsorption of La (III) on GMZ bentonite achieves equilibration quickly and the kinetic adsorption
follows the pseudo-second-order model; the adsorption of La (III) on the adsorbent is strongly dependent on pH and solid content,
the adsorption process follows Langmuir isotherm. The equilibrium batch experiment data demonstrate that GMZ bentonite is
effective adsorbent for the removal of La (III) from aqueous solution with the maximum adsorption capacity of 26.8 mg g−1 under the given experimental conditions.
Authors:Liang Chen, Shaoming Yu, Liming Zuo, Bin Liu, and Lingli Huang
In this study, a local bentonite from Gaomiaozi county (Inner Mongolia, China) was converted to Na-bentonite and was characterized
by FTIR and XRD to determine its chemical constituents and micro-structure. The removal of cobalt from aqueous solutions by
Na-bentonite was investigated as a function of contact time, pH, ionic strength, foreign ions and temperature by batch technique
under ambient conditions. The results indicated that the sorption of Co(II) was strongly dependent on pH. At low pH, the sorption
of Co(II) was dominated by outer-sphere surface complexation or ion exchange whereas inner-sphere surface complexation was
the main sorption mechanism at high pH. The Langmuir, Freundlich, and D-R models were used to simulate the sorption isotherms
of Co(II) at the temperatures of 293.15, 313.15 and 333.15 K, respectively. The thermodynamic parameters (∆G°, ∆S°, ∆H°) of Co(II) sorption on GMZ bentonite calculated from the temperature-dependent sorption isotherms indicated that the sorption
of Co(II) on GMZ bentonite was an exothermic and spontaneous process. The Na-bentonite is a suitable material for the preconcentration
and solidification of Co(II) from aqueous solutions.
Bentonite has been studied extensively because of its strong sorption and complexation ability. Herein, GMZ bentonite from
Gaomiaozi county (Inner Mongolia, China) was investigated as the candidate of backfill material for the removal of Th(IV)
ions from aqueous solutions. The results indicate that the sorption of Th(IV) is strongly dependent on pH and ionic strength
at pH < 5, and independent of ionic strength at pH > 5. Outer-sphere surface complexation or ion-exchange are the main mechanism
of Th(IV) sorption on GMZ bentonite at low pH values, whereas the sorption of Th(IV) at pH > 5 is mainly dominated by inner-sphere
surface complexation or surface precipitation. Soil fulvic acid (FA) and humic acid (HA) have a positive influence on the
sorption of Th(IV) on bentonite at pH < 5. The different addition sequences of HA and Th(IV) to GMZ bentonite suspensions
have no obvious effect on Th(IV) sorption to HA-bentonite hybrids. The high sorption capacity of Th(IV) on GMZ bentonite suggests
that the GMZ bentonite can remove Th(IV) ions from large volumes of aqueous solutions in real work.
Authors:Lu Songsheng, Xu Hua, Wang Mingming, Song Xiaoping, and Liu Qiong
The bentonite from Gaomiaozi county (Inner Mongolia, China) (denoted as GMZ bentonite) was characterized by X-ray powder diffraction
and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The effect of pH, contact time, ionic strength, humic acid (HA) and Eu(III) concentrations
on Eu(III) sorption to the GMZ bentonite was studied by batch technique under ambient conditions. The sorption of Eu(III)
on GMZ bentonite was strongly dependent on pH and independent of ionic strength. The sorption of Eu(III) on GMZ bentonite
was mainly dominated by surface complexation rather than by ion exchange. The presence of HA enhanced Eu(III) sorption at
low pH values, but decreased Eu(III) sorption at high pH values. The enhanced sorption of Eu(III) on GMZ bentonite at low
pH was attributed to the strong complexation of Eu(III) with surface adsorbed HA on GMZ bentonite and the reduced sorption
of Eu(III) at high pH was attributed to the formation of soluble HA–Eu complexes in aqueous solution. The strong sorption
of Eu(III) on GMZ bentonite suggested that the GMZ bentonite could be used as the backfill material in nuclear waste disposal.