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One of the crucial points in the history of the Ukrainian language (especially in Galicia) is the second half of the nineteenth century. While until the 1860s a conservative group has been dominant in the Galician-Ukrainian society, from this time on the so-called Narodovtsi emerged and step by step took over the leading position. Referring to the works of the Rus’ka Trijcja, Fedor Zarevyč, Volodymyr Šaškevyč and Ksenofont Klymkovyč tried to popularize a literary language on the basis of the spoken idioms. Beyond that, and here lies the main point of their work, they tried to unify the different parts of the Ukrainian territories, not only through literature, but as well as through a new concept of language, that clearly favoured Eastern Ukrainian dialects. Compared to many of his successors, Klymkovyč avoided most of the characteristic West-Ukrainian language features.

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The paper discusses the influence of the Habsburg topographic surveys and cartography on the toponymic landscape of the former crown land of Galicia. Publicly available maps have had a great impact on the geographical names used both by locals and non-locals. The Habsburg toponymic policy was characterized by non-Germanisation of already existing Galician toponyms. The Habsburg toponymic heritage is therefore of double nature: 1) forms of toponyms popularized by Austro-Hungarian maps (especially by Spezialkarte) influenced a wide toponymic usus as well as the toponymy of the later maps (especially interwar-Polish military maps) – these popularized forms may have differed from the names used by the local communities, which could have been caused by a surveyor’s mistake; 2) the topographic and cartographic materials produced by the Austro-Hungarian institutions are a valuable source for toponomastic research. In the paper, the Austro-Hungarian and interwar-Polish topographic manuals are analysed. These documents defined the way a surveyor had to collect and process geographical names. The examples and possible causes of some Polonized forms occurring in Spezialkarte are discussed. Next, the influence of the Austrian maps on the toponymy of Polish maps is explained. Finally, hilarious examples of cartographic name-copying are given.

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Sensitisation to mites is frequent in atopic dogs. The main mite genus involved in canine atopic dermatitis is Dermatophagoides . The importance of storage mite allergens in dogs has been controversial. The aim of this study was to evaluate the sensitisation rates against storage mites ( Lepidoglyphus destructor and Tyrophagus putrescentiae ) and house dust mites ( Dermatophagoides farinae and D. pteronyssinus ) in atopic dogs from Galicia, a highly humid and temperate region of Spain, using a FcɛRIα-based immunoglobulin E (IgE) in vitro test. The study was performed on 95 dogs suffering from atopic dermatitis and presenting detectable specific serum IgE levels: 91.6% of the dogs tested positive for storage mites, whereas sensitisation to house dust mites was detected in 87.4%. These results indicate the importance of storage mites in this specific geographic area.

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In the study I tried to reconstruct the history of the Jewish community of Tállya and their synagogue, for up to now neither the community, nor the art historically important Torah ark has received due attention. After the Holocaust very few survivors came back to Tállya – a settlement in Tokaj-Hegyalja, a region of north-eastern Hungary – and not a single member of the former Orthodox congregation lives there today. The community built their third place of worship in the mid-nineteenth century, pulled down in 1964. The reasons why I found it important to map the socio-cultural and religious environment in more detail are commemorative and research methodological. The Israelite community enjoyed autonomy in choosing their rabbi and arranging all other domestic matters, and consequently, their taste, religious orientation, acculturation influenced the shaping of their synagogue building, the style of its furnishing and ritual objects. For lack of congregational documents, many kinds of sources (e.g. newspaper articles, recollections, biographies of rabbis, municipal documents) had to be interpreted within the context offered by the historical elaborations of the age. It was indispensable to shed light on the system of relations between Hasidism of growing influence from the early nineteenth century and traditional Orthodoxy, particularly because the tendencies of secession also appeared in the Tállya community, and the iconography of the Torah ark of their synagogue is most closely related to the carved Torah arks of East European Hasidic communities (in Poland, Galicia, Moldavia, etc.). According to archival sources the community leaders of Tállya could assert their wish to have the woodcarver create symbolic motifs on the ark despite the rabbi’s disapproval. As the direct antecedent to the composition I identified the masonry Torah ark of Mád, but the inventive, singular style of the carvings bears no kinship with the mentioned prototypes or the altars in churches in the vicinity. At the end of the paper I sum up the events that led to the demolition of the synagogue and the perishing of its interior furniture, relying on documents in the Hungarian Jewish Museum and the Monument Documentation Centre.

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Abstract

At the turn of the 20th century many Native Americans took part in white man's enterprises: first Wild West shows, then silent movies. Wild West shows toured not only the United States but the Old World as well, including the south-eastern edges of the Austro-Hungarian Empire. Among the Native Americans who performed in Europe particularly visible were the Lakota (western Sioux) who performed, among others, in Buffalo Bill's Wild West show. The most famous of these Lakotas was Sitting Bull who had led his people's military resistance against encroaching white Americans a decade beforehand. Sitting Bull joined the Buffalo Bill's show for 1885 season. In 1890, the Sioux and other tribes lived a great religious awakening that was named Ghost Dance, hoping that by performing the Ghost Dance ritual they would make their lives better and get rid of the white men who took their lands, put them in reservations, broke treaty promises and brought hunger and diseases. On December 15, 1890, Sitting Bull was killed by Indian Police in front of his cabin at the Standing Rock reservation. Two weeks later, on December 29, 1890, at least two hundred, but perhaps as many as three hundred, Lakotas were killed in the tragic battle (that soon turned into a massacre) at Wounded Knee or died in its aftermath.

A few months later, almost one hundred Lakotas, including those who survived Wounded Knee massacre, joined the Buffalo Bill show during its second European tour. In 1902 they participated in the third European tour of Buffalo Bill's Wild West, now called Buffalo Bill's Wild West and Congress of Rough Riders of the World. I will discuss the show as well as the Native American performers and their reception while the show travelled among Polish cities during the summer of 1906, almost at the end of that tour. Delving into Polish press of that period, I will attempt to demonstrate how the Polish press made various, sometimes quite unexpected uses of the show.

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In Galicia, in the multiethnic borderland of the early 1830s, we observe a slow completion of cultural separation and marginalization processes and shrinkage of integration and assimilation strategies as ways of ethnic identity-building. This process of cultural and linguistic separation of Ukrainians towards Poles culminated in Galicia in the 1880s and 1890s with the attainment of a mature political phase through Ukrainian Galicians. This paper analyses the origins of this process through the biography and works of Markiyan Shashkevych.

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Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry
Authors:
L. Núñez-Regueira
,
J. Rodríguez-Añón
,
J. Proupín-Castiñeiras
, and
A. Romero-García

Abstract  

Calorific values and flammability changes during a year for forest waste originating from silviculture task in Galicia (NW Spain) are reported. These waste materials are becoming to be used as alternative fuels. The present study was made on several hardwood forest species. These forest species occupy nowadays approximately 30% of the total forest surface of Galicia. Calorific values were measured by static bomb calorimeter in an oxygen atmosphere. Flammability was determined using a standard epiradiator. Simultaneously, some other parameters such as elementary chemical composition, heavy metal contents, moisture, density, ash percentage after combustion in the bomb, and main bioclimatic characteristics, were also determined.

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A Bodrog jobb partján, a Tokaj-Eperjesi-hegység keleti lábánál futó régi ún. Galíciai út szerves része volt a korabeli magyar úthálózatnak: egyik szakasza volt a Galícia kereskedelmi és gazdasági központját, Lemberget (mai nevén L’vov) Pesttel összekötő útnak. Sárospataktól Szegilongig haladva_d

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In Galicia, at the end of the 19th century attempts were undertaken to create a modern Ukrainian (“Ruthenian”) language predominantly on the basis of common language. Politicians, scientists, artists and the clergy recognised their obligation to participate in the process of creating Ukrainian terminologies, particularly philosophical terminology, in the context of the emerging national language. The usage of philosophical terminology in school books of the period demonstrates the general tendency prevailing in Ukrainian human sciences: translation and loan-translation, parallel use of international and common language forms, use of glosses, etc. A detailed analysis of phonetics, morphology, lexical base and stylistics of the terminological corpus reflects the attempts to create a standard language in Galicia and shows the heterogeneous and complex nature of this variant of the emerging Ukrainian language.

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Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry
Authors:
J. Salgado
,
J. Proupín
,
M. Villanueva
,
J. Rodríguez-Añón
, and
N. Barros

Abstract  

Differential scanning calorimetry was applied to assess on seasonally soil organic matter changes. Soils were collected in two sites located in Viveiro (Galicia, Spain). One of them has been used as arable land and the other one was under pinewood. Soil samples were seasonally collected during a year. The heat of combustion and the ignition temperature of the soil organic matter were calculated by analyzing the thermograms obtained by differential scanning calorimetry. The shape and the maximum and end temperatures of the two exothermic peaks observed in the thermograms, yielded information about the relations between the labile and recalcitrant pools, and hence information about carbon stabilization degree in both soils.

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