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Dickson M. H., Fanelli M. What is geothermal energy, Istituto di geoscienze e Georisorse , CNR, Pisa, Italy, 2004. Fanelli M

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). Sustainable production of geothermal energy: suggested definition . IGA-News, Quarterly no. 43, January–March 2001, 1 – 2 . B. J. Barker 2000 The Geysers

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]. Mádlné Szőnyi , J. ( 2008 ). A geotermikus energiahasznosítás nemzetközi és hazai helyzete, jövőbeni lehetőségei Magyarországon [International and Domestic Situation of the Utilization of Geothermal Energies, Future Potentials in Hungary] . Hungarian

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geothermal energy (among the renewable sources) is that it is weather independent, unlikely the wind or solar power; it can also be continuously extracted and it has a very high capacity factor ( Chamorro et al. 2014 ). On the other hand, it has some

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, perspektívái (The situation and perspectives of geothermal energy) Magyar Tudomány 8 926 – 936 . [2]. György Balázs , K. ( 2012

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Hungary’s potential in geothermal energy is quite remarkable. In order to protect the quantity and the quality of the surface and sub-surface water sources and the soil as well it is important to find an environmental friendly way for the discharge of the geothermal waste water. If this problem is solved from an environmental and legal point of view, thermal water is going to be the most promising energy source of Hungary. The aim of this study was to work out a system of criteria, the fulfillment of which would allow the discharge of utilized thermal water.

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The Triassic karstic aquifer is the system with the greatest potential for the utilization of thermal waters in Serbia. As an integral part of the Dinaric tectonic unit, the Triassic aquifer extends widely over the western part of the Serbian territory and is characterized by cold waters. In contrast, the same but confined type of aquifer overlain by thick Tertiary sediments in the Pannonian Basin has significant geothermal potential. The major potential for tapping geothermal flow is in the southern and southwestern parts of the Pannonian Basin (Srem) and in the adjacent areas of Mačva and Semberija in the Sava tectonic graben. In these areas the Triassic karstic aquifer has been tapped by several boreholes with depths ranging from 400 m to 2400 m. The temperature of the hottest water exceeds 75 °C, while maximal discharge is 40 l/s.

Although the prospect of wider utilization of geothermal energy undoubtedly exists, some Serbian national plans count on a limited contribution of geothermal energy in renewable energy sources of only 4%. This is probably due to the low level of current utilization, and the inefficient use of even some highly productive wells with a high water temperature, such as those drilled in the most prosperous Mačva region.

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Abstract

Geothermal energy source is the heat from the Earth, which ranges from the shallow ground (the upper 100 m of the Earth) to the hot water and hot rock which is a few thousand meters beneath the Earth's surface. In both cases the so-called open systems for geothermal energy resource exploitation consist of a groundwater production well to supply heat energy and an injection well to return the cooled water, from the heat pump after the thermal energy transfer, in the underground. In the paper an analytical method for a rapid estimation of the ground water flow direction effect on the coupled production well and injection well system will be proposed. The method will be illustrated with solutions and images for representative flow directions respect to the axis of the production/injection well system.

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Budapest is famous for its thermal springs and spas and outstanding thermal water resources. In the 21st century renewable energy utilization — including the use of geothermal energy — became the focus of interest. Improving the use of the different forms of geothermal energy requires the assessment of their possibilities. The potential for deep geothermal doublet systems for direct heating in Budapest was evaluated based on the temperature conditions, the depth and reconnaissance of the carbonate reservoir. NW Buda is not appropriate for thermal water exploration. SW and SE Budapest have better temperature conditions but the lithology of the reservoir is uncertain. Beneath Pest the thermal water is well exploitable. It is obvious from the map of the region that the area is promising; however, due to the hydraulic continuity of the system, reinjection is desirable. Considering the reliability of the employed data the geothermal potential map is suitable only for general orientation and guidance.

The geothermal potential map for Groundwater-sourced Heat Pump Systems (GHPS; scale = 1:40,000) was assembled by evaluating the thickness and appearance of the gravel strata and water table, complemented by the sulfate content as an aggressive component of groundwater. The original geothermal potential map series can be used for the evaluation of potential sites in Budapest. It can be concluded that the Buda side of the Danube River is almost entirely unsuitable for shallow groundwater-based heat pump installations. The only areas under consideration are Óbuda and the riverbanks. On the Pest side, there is no gravel in the central part; the largest areas close to the river and in the immediate surroundings are uncertain, with patches of suitable and possible categories. The southern and eastern area of Pest is the most prospective for GHPS installation. The potential maps only consider natural parameters; however, installation may be strongly influenced by the urbanization and the city environment.

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Historical storage cellars in Budapest

The architectural history and functional operation of an industrial building in 19th-century Hungary

Építés - Építészettudomány
Authors: Martin Pilsitz and Zsuzsanna Nádasi-Antal

The Kőbánya district of Budapest is situated on the eastern margins of the Hungarian capital city. Beneath Kőbánya there is an extensive limestone layer, in which tunnels and passages have been made, ‍some of which appear to date from the 13th century. In the 19th century, the limestone caverns of Budapest-Kőbánya were used for the refrigeration of perishable goods in large quantities. The caverns‍ represent one of Budapest’s historical industrial landmarks, although their architectural history has not been documented in full. This article analyses the architectural development of these evidently low-tech‍ facilities, while also exploring their significant role in the city’s urbanisation. The technical functions and structure of the system of caverns may be useful as a resource for society in the future when the supply‍ of fossil fuels runs out. The effectiveness of the caverns as places for refrigeration can be demonstrated through climatic calculations. The cavern system has significant energy capabilities, given that there is a‍constant air temperature throughout the year. The vast amount of geothermal energy could be used to cool heat pumps or heat exchangers. The results of measurements taken in preparation for this article are‍ presented.

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