Indogermanischen Grundsprache. Akten des Freiburger Kolloquiums der Indogermanischen Gesellschaft , Freiburg , 26.-27. Februar 1981 . Amsterdam-Philadelphia 1984, 113-153, hier 123 (und THIER, K.: Language and Technology: Some Examples from Seafaring [Germanic
population. One inscription provides linguistic evidence for this process, 18 its deviations from Classical Latin being explained by the influence of a Celtic substrate. 19 Besides Celtic and Christian influences, the Germanic element as evidenced by
The inhabitants of the steppes around the Black Sea and the nearby areas of the wooded steppe must be recognised as having played a special role in the events that occurred during the transition from Late Antiquity to the Early Middle Ages. These populations were known not only by their peculiar living conditions but also various cultural models, even though the pastoral nature of their economy and the continuous movements related to it were of fundamental importance. The steppe was also an extensive link that facilitated contacts with the nomads present beyond the southern course of the Volga and Ural rivers, in the vast territories of the Central Asian zones up to the border with China. Toward the end of Late Antiquity, the ethnic make-up of the inhabitants of those territories changed. The Indo-European nomads were replaced by the groups of Turks-Mongols that arrived in subsequent waves from the Asian steppes. These included the Huns, who in 375 had destroyed the state of the Goths on the Black Sea and, having settled after 420 in the woods and plains crossed by the river Tisza, continued to go beyond the Pannonian
to strike the areas closer to the border. The intensity of these incursions increased after 434 whenAttila unified the nomadic tribes under his command, creating a vast empire of the steppe whose centre was located between the Tisza and the middle region of the Danube. The Huns also cooperated with the subjugated communities, first and foremost the rest of the Goths, Gepids and other Germans who had remained in their residential areas, but also theAlani and the Jazigs. It was only after the defeat of 451 on the Catalaunian Plains, the failed Italian expedition of 452 and the sudden death of Attila in 453 that the Hun Empire completely fell apart. The final blow was struck on the Nedao River in southern Pannonia by the forces united under the command of the Gepids in 454 or 455. What triggered a new shift of Germanic populations, considered the final phase of the period of the “Great Migrations” of peoples, was the ingress of the Langobards into Italy in 568. This alliance of Germanic tribes had appeared at the beginning of the 6
century on the shores of the Danube and, taking full advantage of the collapse of that sector of the
in 526, began to occupy Pannonia. In the face of the danger represented by the Avars, and the new nomads who began to occupy the entire plain crossed by the Tisza, the Langobards decided to abandon Pannonia, leaving it to the Avars on the basis of a peace treaty.
. Germanic obstruent lenition: Some mutual implications of theoretical and historical phonology. Doctoral dissertation, University of Newcastle upon Tyne.
Honeybone, Patrick 2005. Sharing makes us stronger: Process
The present paper draws the reader's attention to the lexical influence of Scandinavian languages on the languages of the Eastern Slavic bloc as well as to the „reverse side of the coin” i.e. the Eastern Slavic lexical influence on the Scandinavian languages. The following points are discussed in the study:1)Russian words of Scandinavian origin.-As it is widely known, in the case of Russian, the influence of the Scandinavian languages began with the emergence of the Rurikovich-dynasty. The changes resulting from it have had their linguistic consequences in Russian, among others, in the form of some loanwords of Scandinavian origin. (About the historical background see Font 1995: 6-42, Pátrovics 1997: 109-116, and ?????????? 1978. Be reminded furthermore that in the case of Polish, the Scandinavian lexical influence can be minimized to inter-state relations to a much lesser degree than in the case of Russian. About the Scandinavian-Polish lexical contacts see Jurkowski 1993: 18-25, Pátrovics 2000: 221-226). 2)Words of Eastern Slavic origin in Scandinavian languages such as Swedish, Norwegian, Danish and Icelandic. 3) Analysis of two etymologies: shelk (silk) and chmel' (hops). 4)'Sovietisms' in the Scandinavian languages. 5)Two Russian toponyms of Scandinavian origin. 6)Epilog and conclusions. 7) References.-I hope that this two-directional approach puts the matter in different new light and the linguistic data will help to understand the intricate question of interrelation of Eastern Slavic and Scandinavian languages.
Authors:Annette E. Götz, Michael Montenari and Gelu Costin
Muschelkalk carbonates of the Triassic Germanic Basin, a peripheral basin of the western Tethys Ocean, cover large parts of central Europe. During the Anisian, the basin was bordered by landmasses and open to the
Authors:György Németh, Béla Adamik and José Miguel Alonso-Núnez
R. G. Khoury (ed.): Urkunden und Urkundenformulare im Klassischen Altertum und in den orientalischen Kulturen Peter Anreiter: Die vorrömischen Namen Pannoniens Atti del Seminario Internazionale di Studi Letteratura scientifica e tecnica greca e latina (Messina, 29-31 ottobre 1997), a cura di Paola Radici Colace e Antonio Zumbo Roman Gold and the Development of the Germanic Kingdoms. Aspects of technical, socio-political, socio-economic, artistic and intellectual development, A.D. 1-550. - Symposium in Stockholm 14-16 November 1997. Editor: Bente Magnus
Authors:Beáta Tugya, Katalin Náfrádi, Sándor Gulyás, Tünde Törőcsik, Balázs Pál Sümegi, Péter Pomázi and Pál Sümegi
via the Great Hungarian Plain: Traces of Germanic-Sarmatian contacts on the basis of finds of spherical pendants and of other phenomena . In: Inter Ambo Maria. Contacts between Scandinavia and Crimea in the Roman Period . Eds: I. Khrapunov , F. A
In the present study, the principles of nomination of sacrum are analysed on the basis of linguistic and cultural data. The os sacrum has been considered sacred as a nidus for resurrection since antiquity. Its names are motivated by the meaning ‘cross’ in Slavic, Germanic, and Hungarian. In Slavic texts, this image appeared in the 16th century. This late use allows us to see it as a semantic calque of German Kreuz but the first known occurrence in German was attested in the 17th century.