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In this paper, 633 species (involving 10 classes, 48 families, 205 genera) collected from the alpine meadow on the eastern Qinghai-Tibet plateau were studied. We tested potential factors affecting variation in mean germination time (MGT), i.e., plant traits (adult longevity, dispersal mode and seed size) or phylogeny, to evaluate if these factors were independent or they had interaction. Nested ANOVA showed that taxonomic membership accounted for the majority of MGT variation (70%), and in the generalized linear model, family membership could explain independently the largest proportion of MGT variation (29%). The strong taxonomic effect suggests that MGT variation within taxonomic membership is constrained. The other plant traits could also explain MGT variation independently (1% by adult longevity and dispersal mode, respectively, and 2% by seed size). Thus, the phylogeny was an important constraint to maintain the stability of species, and we could simplify the question if we regarded the phylogeny as an individual factor, but we could not negate the adaptive significance of the relationship between other plant traits and seed MGT. In addition, a large percentage of the variance remained unexplained by our model, thus important selective factors or parameters may have been left out of this analysis. We suggest that other possible correlates may exist between seed germination time and additional ecological factors (for example, altitude, habitat and post-dispersal predation) or phylogenetic related morphological and physiological seed attributes (e.g., endosperm mass) that were not evaluated in this study.

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Germinated brown rice received great attention as healthy ingredient and can be used as an alternative source in the malting and brewing industry. The germination capacity, physico-nutritional properties, sugars, and diastase enzyme activity of brown rice affected by germination times and temperature were determined and compared with control. Soaking in water increased the moisture content of brown rice. Germination rate of brown rice was also increased by higher germination time and temperature and reached maximum after 48 h of germination at 35 ºC. However, dry matter loss, grain weight, and density are affected to a lesser extent. Germination significantly (P<0.05) affects the crude protein, fat, fibre, and ash contents. Total carbohydrates content showed linear relationship with germination time and temperature. During germination, hydrolytic enzymes act on starch, reducing its concentration and resulting in higher total and reducing sugars amounts. Increase in germination time and temperature also increased diastase enzyme activity.

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Tocopherols, tocotrienols and γ-oryzanol are potent antioxidants of rice grains, and they may play an important role in the germination and growth of rice plants. In this study, the objective was to examine the effects of germination time on contents of Toc, T3, GO and ascorbate, as well as enzymatic antioxidant activities in the grains of two different rice varieties, namely TN71 and KS139. Samplings were conducted at 0, 3, 6 and 9 days after imbibition. The results showed that T3 and GO contents, but not Toc increased during seedling emergence. Toc content showed a trend of decrease from 0 DAI to 6 DAI. Contrasting to KS139, the AsA content in the grains of TN71 increased with increasing DAI. KS139 showed a time-dependent increase in the dehydroascorbate level, while that of TN71 remains unchanged at all times. TN71 showed significant increases in superoxide dismutase, catalase, ascorbate peroxidase and glutathione reductase activities in the late germination stages (9 DAI); with the exception of APX, KS139 exhibited a relatively constant enzymatic activities throughout the germination period. The changes in the malondialdehyde and H2O2 levels were minimum before 6 DAI, however a significant increase was noted at 9 DAI. This study indicates that besides the enzymatic antioxidants, the increase in T3 and GO contents may play a role in countering the oxidative stress during rice grain germination.

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-germinated brown rice was 20.96% and it increased from 23.16 to 28.56% under different germination conditions ( Table 1 ). Results also showed that both germination time and temperature significantly increased the in vitro digestibility of starch. Germination

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phenolphthalein indicator. The experiment design was created to find the best germination time in order to create the optimal vegetable milk product. The variable that is chosen is protein digestibility. Randomized Block Design (RBD) is used with one factor

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Acta Microbiologica et Immunologica Hungarica
Authors: Ágnes Jakab, Károly Antal, Tamás Emri, Imre Boczonádi, Alexandra Imre, Enikő Gebri, László Majoros, Walter Péter Pfliegler, Máté Szarka, György Balla, József Balla, and István Pócsi

formations were characterized by germination time (the time elapsed to germination) and branching time (the time elapsed from germination to the first branching). In certain cases, when hyphal growth was parallel to the button of the Petri dishes, the lengths

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This present work is modelling the three physiological stages of germination. The aim of modelling is to define within germination time the duration of the different stages and their temperature dependence. The periods follow Arrhenius-type relations with (average) activation energies typical for the given stages and according to the germination time as well. The germination time being different seed-by-seed can be considered a random variable of normal distribution according to the model. The result of the model was controlled by experimental data given by seed germination trials of the common reed ( Phragmites australis ) and in cases using those given on other seeds (rice, pea).

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Acta Alimentaria
Authors: A. Bagdi, G. Balázs, J. Schmidt, M. Szatmári, R. Schoenlechner, E. Berghofer, and S. Tömösközia

hydrochloric acid extractability of minerals in pearl millet as affected by germination time and cultivar. Fd Chem. , 92 , 425–435. Jideani I.A. Phytic acid content and hydrochloric acid

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(7508W). Gaitis, F. & Marakis, S. (1994): Tannic acid effects on spore germination time and mycelial morphology of Aspergillus carbonarius . Micol. Neotrop. Aplicada , 7 , 5

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. Aust. J. Crop Sci. , 3 , 184 . Roohinejad , S. , Omidizadeh , A. , Mirhosseini , H. , Saari , N. , Mustafa , S. & Abd Manap , M.Y. ( 2011 ): Effect of pre-germination time on amino acid profile and gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA) contents

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