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Abstract

Hungary has favorable geothermal conditions. The paper discusses the thermal and hydrogeologic conditions of the Neogene groundwater reservoir below the Great Hungarian Plain. In the exploration of the reservoir one of the most problematic issues, is the interaction between gravity-driven and overpressured flow regimes, especially along conductive faults. A combination of structural geology supported by seismic interpretation, hydrogeochemistry, and hydraulic evaluations can help to delineate the two flow regimes and determine the origin of the water: meteoric (and thus rechargeable) or syn-sedimentary (and thus non-rechargeable) pore water. These results can be incorporated into basin-scale digital models of the Neogene reservoir. The models can be used to predict the response of the reservoir to the water production and injection, and can help to exploit more efficiently and sustainably the thermal waters of the Great Hungarian Plain reservoir.

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In this paper old historical maps and the sheets of the Habsburg Military Surveys are analyzed to distinguish different terrace levels in the Great Hungarian Plain (GHP), and particulary in the Körös/Criş river system. The GHP is located in the Pannonian Basin, in the eastern part of Hungary, which is a very flat area. Prior to the river regulations, its meandering rivers (eg. the Tisza and Körös Rivers) flooded the lower areas and created marshlands. The method of the integrated analysis of these different maps was the georeference; to geometric fit the sheets from different sources. While the First Military Survey shows the original extents of these areas the Second Survey displays the situation of the environment at the time of the flood control works in the second half of the 19th century, also with the planned cutoffs. The maps show not only the rivers, but the settlements as well. During this period, these villages and towns became bigger, so they needed more and more agricultural area. They cleared the forests and dried out the marshlands to have more ploughlands. These land types can also be separated easily in the survey sheets. Two study areas were selected to show the effectiveness of environmental reconstruction at some local engineering surveys and the Military Surveys, too. The extents of the different elevation terraces are mapped with striking accuracy.

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Two plant communities with dominance of the subterranean clover (Trifolium subterraneum L.) are described from the Great Hungarian Plain: Trifolietum subterranei Slavnić 1948 from Voivodina (Serbia) and Trifolio subterranei-Festucetum pseudovinae Penksza, Kapocsi et Engloner 1999 from the Körös-Maros region in Hungary. The paper deals with these communities. Comparison was done with stands of Achilleo setaceae-Festucetum pseudovinae Soó (1933) 1947 corr. Borhidi 1996 from Hortobágy, Eastern Hungary (Tiszántúl), Orosháza and Voivodina, too. Comparative cluster analyses based on A-D and K percentage values show that stands with subterranean clover in Hungary are similar to those of Voivodina. Therefore, Hungarian stands should be considered as those of the previously described association Trifolietum subterranei Slavnić 1948. The syntaxonomic position of this association is now changed by classifying it into the suballiance Trifolio-Ranunculenion pedati (Slavnić 1948) Purger and Borhidi suball. nova, which belongs to the alliance Festucion pseudovinae Soó 1933.

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Hungarian Plain (Case study about the risk of sewage thermal water seepage on soil medium). Carpathian Journal of Earth and Environmental Sciences. 6. (1) 229–240. Balog K., Farsang A. & Czinkota I., 2011b. A használt hévíz

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The Dorozsma Complex (DC) is defined and its main lithologies are described. The complex makes up the bulk of the Algyõ basement high, representing an outlier of a Cretaceous nappe system in the southernmost part of the Tisza Mega-unit (Great Hungarian Plain). The DC exhibits a polymetamorphic history characterized by a Permian, low-pressure amphibolite facies metamorphism, overprinted by a pressure-dominated eo-Alpine, amphibolite facies metamorphism, accompanied by penetrative mylonitization. "Carboniferous breccias" described by earlier authors and covering the metamorphic rocks sporadically are redefined as tectonized, mostly cataclastic rocks. The uppermost unit of the basement below the Neogene sediments is a nappe composed of Triassic clastic and carbonate sediments. Petrographic similarities of the DC with several units of the Koralpe-Wölz nappe system in the Eastern Alps indicate that both units were formed within a continuous belt in the Cretaceous.

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chronological relations of the Tisza region during the Middle and the Late Neolithic, as reflected by the excavations at Öcsöd-Kováshalom. BÁMÉ 13, 103–125. Raczky, P. 1992 The Neolithic of the Great Hungarian Plain and the Vinča

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: Újab. tanulmány a római érmek szarmatakori forgalmáról a mai magyar Alföldön (A new paper on the circulation of Roman coins during Sarmatian times on the contemporary Great Hungarian Plain) . ArchÉrt 103 ( 1976 ) 253 – 262

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Two introduced plant species, Cenchrus incertus and Ambrosia artemisiifolia were studied in a 0.5 km2 open sand area in the Kiskunság National Park. The site is covered by valuable semi-natural grassland and is bordered by dirt roads. The aim of the study was to assess the extent and pattern of the area occupied by the two species and to describe the composition of the vegetation invaded with more or less success. Populations of the two species were mapped. In each stand of Cenchrus, in fifty-three 4 m2 quadrats aboveground plant cover, slope and exposition were documented. Both species concentrated on the roads. They – especially Ambrosia – were rare inside the intact part of the site, and were absent on abandoned roads. Cenchrus was found also in small patches not related to roads, in sites grazed with sheep. No colonization was detected from the road populations into adjacent intact natural vegetation. The analysis of the quadrats showed that Cenchrus cover was low where perennial or annual open sand grassland specialists dominated, and cryptogam cover was high. Cenchrus dominated quadrats on road or non-road sites were not discriminated from each other by cluster analysis. In non-road quadrats Cenchrus cover positively correlated with slope. Ambrosia was only present in quadrats taken on or near the roads. Aware of the life history traits of the species and of the vegetation dynamics of the target community it can be concluded that propagule transport, soil perturbation and disturbance of the native vegetation together enhance colonization and persistence of both species.

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. Magyari et al. sous presse = E. K. Magyari— J. C. Chapman— D. G. Passmore— J. R. M. Allen— J. P. Huntley— B. Huntley : Holocene persistence of wooded-steppe in the Great Hungarian Plain. Journal of Biogeography (sous presse

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képzõdményei MÁFI Budapest (Formations older than Mezozoic of the Southern Great Hungarian Plain). M. Takahashi H

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