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Jelen tanulmányunkban két hasonló gazdaságfejlődési háttérrel rendelkező egészségügyi ellátórendszer összehasonlítását végezzük el. Mind Nagy-Britanniában, mind az Egyesült Államokban a korai iparosodásra jellemző, piac által vezérelt kapitalista rendszer alakult ki. Bár feltételezhető, hogy hasonlóan a többi gazdasági szektorhoz, az egészségügyben is a piaci koordináció képezi az egészségügyi ellátórendszer szervezésének alapját, de mivel az egészségügyben több ponton is sérülnek a piaci koordináció hatékonyságához szükséges alapfeltételek, a kezdetben pusztán piaci koordináción alapuló egészségügyi ellátórendszer szükségszerűen kudarcra ítéltetett. Ez Nagy-Britanniában a második világháború idején következett be, amikor megfogalmazódtak a jelen egészségügyi rendszer alapjait is képező Beveridge bizottság ajánlásai. Ez a javaslat tartalmazta, hogy az egészségügyi kiadásokat adókból kell fedezni, az egészségügyi hozzáférést minden állampolgárra ki kell terjeszteni, a fekvőbeteg-ellátás infrastruktúráját pedig állami tulajdonba kell helyezni. Így az NHS (National Health System – 1948) rendszer fennállásának kezdetétől elmondható, hogy szinte teljesen a kormányzati szektor által finanszírozott. Ezzel szemben az Egyesült Államokban a piaci koordináció vezérelte egyéni egészségbiztosításból finanszírozott magánellátás csak az 1960-as évekre generált olyan mértékű társadalmi problémákat, hogy kormányzati szinten létrehozták a Medicaid és a Medicare rendszerét a szegények és az idős emberek egészségügyi ellátásának biztosítása céljából. Az elmúlt évek reformkísérletei eredményeként megfigyelhető a rendszerek konvergálása: az Egyesült Királyságban a piac felé történtek elmozdulások, az Egyesült Államokban pedig az állami beavatkozások súlya nőtt meg – legutóbb ezt az Obama elnök által fémjelzett egészségügyi reformban figyelhettük meg. A két rendszer áttekintésének tükrében kitérünk a magyarországi egészségügyi ellátórendszer sajátosságaira is, valamint felvázoljuk az esetleg szükséges reformok körét.

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(i.e., Great Britain) by examining distribution of gambling-related harm by the level of gambling severity and volume. Great Britain has one of the most diverse and accessible commercial gambling markets in the world. Since the introduction of the

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In the late mediaeval and early modern period scattered communities of the Karaites (i.e. non-Talmudic Jews) settled in several regions of Eastern Europe such as the Crimea, Poland and Lithuania. In the 18th and 19th centuries the Karaites printed their books (mostly exegetical and theological works in Hebrew) in several Karaite and Rabbanite typographies. Nevertheless, after 1917 the centre of Karaite printing shifted from the Russian Empire to interwar Poland and Lithuania. Surprisingly, a tiny Karaite community of interwar Poland and Lithuania (ca. 800 individuals) had been publishing as many as five periodicals in three languages! Furthermore, the Karaites also printed quite a number of separate brochures and leaflets, and published articles in non-Karaite periodicals. From the 1930s the Karaite community started losing its Judeo-Karaite identity and accepted a new Turkic ethnic self-identification which was based mostly on the use of the Turkic Karaim language and a few pseudo-scholarly theories testifying to the non-Semitic origins of the Karaites. The renaissance of Karaite printing was stopped in 1939, with the Soviet intervention in Poland and the beginning of the Second World War. The paper analyses the main tendencies in the development of the Karaite printing in Poland and Lithuania in the interwar period. A special emphasis is placed upon the role of printing in the unusual transformation of the East European Karaites’ ethnic identity — from pious non-Talmudic Jewish believers to an isolated ethnic enclave with a bogus Khazaro-Turkic identity.

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By the time of his death in 1827, the image of Beethoven as we recognise him today was firmly fixed in the minds of his contemporaries, and the career of Liszt was beginning to flower into that of the virtuosic performer he would be recognised as by the end of the 1830s. By analysing the seminal artwork Liszt at the Piano of 1840 by Josef Danhauser, we can see how a seemingly unremarkable head-and-shoulders bust of Beethoven in fact holds the key to unlocking the layers of commentary on both Liszt and Beethoven beneath the surface of the image. Taking the analysis by Alessandra Comini as a starting point, this paper will look deeper into the subtle connections discernible between the protagonists of the picture. These reveal how the collective identities of the artist and his painted assembly contribute directly to Beethoven’s already iconic status within music history around 1840 and reflect the reception of Liszt at this time. Set against the background of Romanticism predominant in the social and cultural contexts of the mid 1800s, it becomes apparent that it is no longer enough to look at a picture of a composer or performer in isolation to understand its impact on the construction of an overall identity. Each image must be viewed in relation to those that preceded and came after it to gain the maximum benefit from what it can tell us.

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Abstract  

This article takes the case of the Italian author Dino Buzzati who, parallel to his literary oeuvre best known for its fantastic qualities, spent forty years from 1928 to 1972 as a journalist and columnist for Corriere della sera, practising every conceivable sub-genre of journalism and becoming a sort of 'directeur occulte' of the paper. Focusing on Cronache terrestri, the selection of Buzzati's articles published posthumously, my analysis explores the borderline between literature and journalism in Buzzati's work for Corriere, singling out for particular attention the intersection between specific journalistic techniques (in particular his 'leads' and his titles) and his recourse to the 'fantastic' in the treatment of topical themes and contemporary events (including war reportage). Buzzati's 'borderline', I argue, can be posited as an 'in between-area' between literature and journalism, reality and fantasy, where the signature of Buzzati, as correspondent for an authoritative Italian daily, validates the existence of (apparently) 'impossible' worlds, and where his accumulation of reportorial details and enumerations create fictions of (hyper) reality and the conditions necessary to the 'hesitation' that Todorov ascribes to the fantastic mode.

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Abstract

This contribution concentrates on the catchword ‘Art in the House’ which was formulated most prominently by the Austrian writer Jacob von Falke but which also dominated the discussions on the decoration and the design of interiors in England, the USA and France and elsewhere in the West. It led to a new view of the interior which is now considered a work of art, or ‘design’, in its own right, which amounts to more than the sum of all the individual items of décor. This work of art was also meant to serve more directly the comfort of its users, who would include not just the rich, as before, but potentially everybody.

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The influx of Polish workers into the UK requires a renewal of migration theories and presents important empirical puzzles. Both problems stem from the specificity of this migration wave, which does not correspond to classical models. The inadequacy of classical migration theories is demonstrated by the inaccuracy of forecasts from before 2004. The ‘optimistic’ forecasts (e.g. Boeri and Brücker 2001) foresaw an influx many times smaller than the actual one. But the ‘pessimistic’ forecasts were wrong when expecting a movement towards social benefits (so-called ‘social raids’). The paper shows how the influx of Polish workers is different from previous migration waves: it is, at least in the intention, short-term, and includes a high share of young women. In addition, these workers maintain strong contacts and networks with their home country (frequent travel, new communication technologies), often compare living conditions from different European countries, and show an unforeseen willingness to join local trade unions. The issue is therefore if these people qualify for the definition of (classic) ‘migrants’, or of ‘transnational migrants’ (Pries 2003) or even of ‘cosmopolitans’ (Cohen 2004)? In this way they could, for instance, combine Polish, British, and generally European values on work and social customs. The paper combines the Worker Registration Scheme data with early findings from research (interviews, case studies) on Poles in the West Midlands. This region has the largest number of new Polish migrants in the UK (17% of the total), together with numerous ‘old’ Polish communities. This case is particularly interesting because in this region the share of Poles working through temporary agency employment is the highest (57%). Experiences of both mobilisation and segregation confirm the ambivalent and dynamic nature of this migration wave.

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The heteropteran fauna in three apple orchards in Kent and East Sussex, England was surveyed in 2001, 2002, 2004 and 2006. As a result of intensive sampling, a total of 104 species were recorded. Ninety species were recorded in an experimental apple orchard at East Malling Research, Kent, which had replicated plots subject to different pesticide management regimes, while 43 and 38 species were recorded in two commercial organic apple orchards near Marden, Kent and Robertsbridge, East Sussex, respectively. In the canopy layer the abundant species, in decreasing order of their relative abundance, were Orius vicinus, Atractotomus mali, Anthocoris nemorum, Heterotoma planicornis, Phytocoris reuteri, Lygus rugulipennis, Phytocoris longipennis, Palomena prasina, Orthotylus marginalis, Blepharidopterus angulatus and Deraeocoris ruber . These 11 species comprised at least 80% of the total Heteroptera abundance in the canopy in each apple orchard. The composition of bug communities differed between years and between the plots subject to different insecticide regimes in the experimental orchard at East Malling. However, these differences were exceeded by the characteristic differences in species composition and relative abundances between the three different orchards.

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Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry
Authors:
M. Epple
,
H. Kirschnick
, and
J. M. Thomas

The thermal elimination of NaCl from sodium chloroacetate, a polymerization reaction that takes place between 150 and 200‡C in the solid state, leads quantitatively to the simplest polyester, polyglycolide. Byin situ IR-spectroscopy, we have shown that the reaction proceeds smoothly and directly without intermediates or by-products. The endgroups of the polymeric product — ionised carboxylate groups (-COONa) and hydrogen-bonded alcohol groups (−COH) — are clearly detectable. It is therefore concluded that the polymer forms extended chains, not rings, during the course of this solid-state reaction. That corresponds well with the idea of a polymerization reaction in the solid state. However, this experiment does not exclude the formation of polyglycolide rings as further product because they do not contain any terminating groups.

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An activation energyE a=195 kJ mol−1 has been determined for the thermal decomposition of NdC2O4Cl to NdOCl with simultaneous expulsion of CO and CO2. As compared with the value (127 kJ mol−1) predicted by the Kahwa-Mulokozi empirical expression (i) for Ln2(C2O4)3 (Ln=light lanthanide), the presence of Cl in the coordination polyhedron appreciably raises the activation energy, which is consistent with a corresponding increase in the covalent strength of the Ln-oxalate bond. The same conclusion regarding the strength of this bond is drawn from a study of the infrared spectrum.

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