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, Philippines. Ogoke, I. J., Carsky, R. J., Togun, A. O., Dashiell, K. (2001): Maize yield following phosphorus-fertilized soybean in the Nigerian Guinea savanna. pp. 205–213. In: Badu-Apraku, B., Fakorede, M. A. B., Ouedraogo, M

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Field trials were conducted in the wet seasons of 1997 and 1998 at Makurdi, Otukpo and Yandev in the Southern Guinea Savanna ecological zone of Nigeria to study the responses of ten soybean genotypes to intercropping. The experiment was laid out in a randomised complete block design. The genotypes TGX 1807-19F, NCRI-Soy2, Cameroon Late and TGX 1485-1D had the highest grain yield. All the Land Equivalent Ratio (LER) values were higher than unity, indicating that there is great advantage in intercropping maize with soybean. The yield of soybean was positively correlated with the days to 50% flowering, days to maturity, plant height, pods/plant and leaf area, indicating that an improvement in any of these traits will be reflected in an increase in seed yield. There was a significant genotype × yield × location interaction for all traits. This suggests that none of these factors acted independently. Similarly, the genotype × location interaction was more important than the genotype × year interaction for seed yield, indicating that the yield response of the ten soybean genotypes varied across locations rather than across years. Therefore, using more testing sites for evaluation may be more important than the number of years.

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Shinggu, C. P., Dadari, S. A., Shebayan, J. A. Y., Adekpe, D. I., Ishaya, D. B. (2009): Effects of variety, crop arrangement and period of weed interference on the performance of maize growth in mixture in northern Guinea savannah of Nigeria. ARPN Journal

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Full-sib families derived from Pool 16 DT, a tropical maize ( Zea mays L.) population, were evaluated in the 1995/96 and 1997/98 dry seasons, using two sites each season in Côte d’Ivoire. In all sites, the crop was irrigated from planting to about 2 weeks before anthesis, irrigation was discontinued thereafter for the rest of the season in one site in 1995 and both sites in 1997. Irrigation was continued till maturity in the second site in 1995. The means and ranges showed that the induced stress environments produced significantly lower grain yield, fewer ears per plant (EPP) and lower grain moisture percentage than the non-stressed site. The coefficients of variation (CVs) associated with the stressed environment were consistently larger than those associated with the non-stressed environment. Similarly, the coefficients of determination (R 2 ) values were generally higher for the non-stressed than the stressed site. Only 7 families were common to the highest-yielding 20 % of the 90 families in each evaluation environment in 1995 and the 7 families were ranked differently in the stressed relative to the non-stressed environments. EPP, plant height (PHT) and ear height (EHT) had consistent positive correlation with grain yield; correlations of days to anthesis and silking date with yield were negative. The induced stress did not properly elicit the true differences among families and may, therefore, need to be modified. We are presently experimenting with a slight modification of the method by irrigating whenever the maize plants start showing signs of temporary wilting such as leaf rolling early in the day.

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One of the known agricultural practices by which degraded soils can be restored and rehabilitated to an optimum level of productivity is by the use of synthetic organic materials, called soil conditioners. In a greenhouse experiment at the National Cereals Research Institute (NCRI), Badeggi, located in the Southern Guinea Savannah Agro-Ecological Zone (Lat. 9o45'N. Long 6o7'E, Alt. 70.57 metres above sea level) the soil conditioner Terrallyt-Plus was evaluated on soils from three locations within the Central Zone of Nigeria. The results obtained indicate that the addition of Terrallyt-Plus did not improve the yield of maize or the status of the soils.

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Intensive surveys conducted at Samaru and its environs in the northern Guinea Savanna of Nigeria between October 2000 and September 2002, indicated that Bemisia tabaci (Genn.) infests forty two (thirty three cultivated and seven wild) species of plants. Twenty nine of the plants were found in upland, two in the lowland and eleven in both upland and lowland (fadama) areas. Heavily infested plants were distorted, chlorotic and stunted. Symptoms of virus infection were associated with some of the infested plants. This is the first comprehensive report of hosts of B. tabaci in Nigeria.

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The effect of three rates (5, 10 and 20% w/v) and different spraying schedules (2, 4 and 6 weekly applications) of aqueous neem, Azadirachta indica (A. Juss) seed extracts was tested on legume pod borers, Maruca vitrata Fab. and the coreid bugs, Clavigralla tomentosicollis Stal on cowpea under field conditions in two cropping seasons in the northern Guinea savanna of Nigeria. Legume pod borers (LPB) were better controlled at 20% and 6 applications of neem seed extract compared with other plant material treatments and the untreated check but its values were not significantly different to the synthetic insecticide treatment. Although, at similar rate of neem seed extract, its control of the coreid bugs was inferior to the synthetic insecticide treatment but was superior to 10% and 5% rates of neem seed extracts at all application schedules. Cowpea pods were adequately protected from damage by the pests and grain yields were significantly higher at 10 and 20% extract rates with four or six application schedules compared with 5% extract at all schedules tested and the untreated control but its values were inferior to the synthetic insecticide treatment.

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Field trials were conducted in the dry (Experiment I) and wet (Experiment II) seasons of 1997 at Samaru (11°11' N, 7°38' E, 686 m above sea level) in the northern Guinea Savanna ecological zone of Nigeria to study the effects of nitrogen rates on the reaction of upland rice (Oryza sativa L.) varieties to Striga hermonthica (Del.) Benth. The results indicate that FARO 48, a variety normally susceptible to Striga hermonthica, exhibited resistance. FARO 11 exhibited tolerance, while FARO 38, FARO 46 and FARO 45 exhibited susceptibility. The application of 90 and 120 kg N/ha delayed and reduced Striga emergence on the crop, induced a low crop reaction score and produced grain yields that were the maximum or significantly higher than the least. No significant differences in Striga infestation were observed between nitrogen rates of 30-120 kg N/ha. The significant interaction between upland rice varieties and nitrogen rates indicates that the susceptible varieties require higher rates of nitrogen to ameliorate the effect of Striga compared with the resistant varieties.

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Field trials were conducted to assess the contribution of legumes to the nitrogen nutrition of sugarcane at the up-land sugarcane experimental field of the National Cereals Research Institute Farm, Badeggi (9°45'N, 06°07'E) in the Southern Guinea Savanna ecological zone of Nigeria in the 1997 and 1998 wet seasons. The four treatments tested consisted of sole-planted chewing cane, and chewing cane intercropped with soybean (TGM 579), Sesbania rostrata and cowpea (Ife brown). The treatments were laid out in a randomised complete block design with three replications. The legumes were ploughed into the soil at 12 weeks after sowing (WAS). At 2 months after sowing, cane intercropped with cowpea generally recorded lower values for cane height, tiller number and crop vigour, while the sole-planted cane crop gave the highest values for each of these parameters in both years. However, at 4 and 10 months after planting and at harvest (1, 6 and 9 months after the legume incorporation) sole-planted cane recorded significantly lower cane height, single stalk weight and crop vigour in 1997 and 1998. Among the intercropping treatments, cowpea and sesbania had almost similar effects on the cane in terms of crop vigour, cane height, single stalk weight and cane yield (t/ha), being better than the sole-planted cane and intercropping with soybean.

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Cereal Research Communications
Authors: Zlatko Svečnjak, Boris Varga, Darko Grbeša, Milan Pospišil, and Dubravko Maćešić

Badu-Apraku B. — Fakorede, M.A.B. — Menkir, A. — Kamara A.Y. — Dapaah S. (2005): Screening maize for drought tolerance in the Guinea savanna of West and Central Africa. Cereal Research Communications 33

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