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The hypothesis of niche differentiation with respect to resources is considered to be one of the most influential explanations for the maintenance of species diversity. The hypothesis has been examined extensively by testing its prediction of species-habitat association, which posits that the spatial distribution of species is highly correlated with environmental variables. However, we argue that widespread evidence of the species-habitat association lacks adequate rigor to justify the niche differentiation hypothesis. In this study, we tested whether and to what extent the observed species-habitat association could be caused by ecological processes other than niche differentiation, in a 20-ha subtropical forest plot. The niche differentiation hypothesis was evaluated by testing the species-habitat association and performing a cross-evaluation of the habitat-diversity expectation, which posits that a strong positive correlation exists between species diversity and habitat complexity. Failure to support the habitat-diversity expectation would at a minimum indicate that the niche differentiation hypothesis might not be the main underlying process of species distribution, despite prevalence of the species-habitat association in the same plot. Our analysis revealed that distributions of most species (86.11%) in the plot were significantly associated with at least one of eight topographical and soil nutrient variables. However, there was almost no significant positive correlation between species diversity and habitat complexity at various spatial scales in the same plot. The results indicate that additional caution is warranted when interpreting the species-habitat association from the niche differentiation perspective. A significant species-habitat association indicates only a species’ habitat preference. The association may reveal nothing about interspecific differences in habitat preference, which is a requirement of the niche differentiation hypothesis.

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A great challenge in ecology is to link patterns in nature with the factors that determine species coexistence and community structure. In general, these patterns have been associated with different environmental conditions and species traits. The coexistence of ant species could be affected by the availability of food and nesting resources, which depend on vegetation diversity and structural complexity. In this study, we attempt to reproduce, through null models, the properties of ant community structure in areas with different physiognomy of vegetation associated to different wildfire regimes. The null model construction considered ant traits such as occurrence frequency, body size, and nest type; and site characteristics such as vegetation height and extra-floral nectar availability, and their combinations. The null models were compared to observed species segregation and nestedness patterns. Ant species were more aggregated in space than expected by chance. Vegetation height and extra-floral nectar availability were included in the most successful models in predicting ant segregation and aggregation pattern. Furthermore, ants’ body size was enough to reproduce the nestedness of species distribution in sites. Our results suggest that under post-fire conditions, habitat complexity, resource availability and species traits such as body size may be the determinants of ant community structure.

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Community Ecology
Authors: T. Romanuk, B. Beisner, A. Hayward, L. Jackson, J. Post, and E. McCauley

. 2005 166 129 135 Hurlbert, A.H. 2004. Species-energy relationships and habitat complexity in bird communities. Ecol

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. Ferreira C.E.L. , J.E.A. Gonçalves and R. Coutinho . 2001 . Community structure of fishes and habitat complexity in a tropical rocky shore . Environ. Biol. Fish 61 : 353 – 369

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Community Ecology
Authors: F. J. Fernandez-Maldonado, J. R. Gallego, A. Valencia, M. Gamez, Z. Varga, J. Garay, and T. Cabello

.J. , J.M. Dettmers , D.H. Wahl and S.J. Czesny . 2010 . Effects of predator-prey interactions and benthic habitat complexity on selectivity of a foraging generalist . T. Am. Fish. Soc. 139 : 1004 – 1013 .

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bird species richness in protected areas . Global Ecol. Biogeogr. 19:61–71. Hurlbert, A.H. 2004. Species-energy relationships and habitat complexity in bird communities. Ecol. Lett. 7: 714

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August, P. V. 1983. The role of habitat complexity and heterogeneity in structuring tropical mammal communities. Ecology 64: 1495–1513. August P. V

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Alto, B. W., M. W. Griswold and L. P. Lounibos. 2005. Habitat complexity and sex-dependent predation of mosquito larvae in containers. Oecologia 146: 300

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August, P.V. 1983. The role of habitat complexity and heterogeneity in structuring tropical mammal communities. Ecology 64: 1495–1507. August P.V. The role of habitat complexity and

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for statistical computing 2008 Rennie, M.D. and L.J. Jackson. 2005. The influence of habitat complexity on littoral

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