References 1. Altunay , H. , Kozlu , T. ( 2004 ) The fine structure of the Harderian gland in the ostrich ( Struthio camelus ) . Anat. Histol. Embryol . 33
The authors describe a case of unilateral adenocarcinoma emerging from the Harderian gland, filling the right orbital cavity of a Florida Red-bellied Turtle ( Pseudemys nelsoni ). The tumour did not produce any metastasis but presented an expansive growth and led to the dislocation and protrusion of the right eyeball. Histopathological analysis revealed the presence of numerous mitotic figures in the cellular population that made up the tumour. The tumour cells completely filled the alveoli of the gland and had a nest-like structure. The authors also emphasise the importance of the differential diagnosis of this rare pathological change in turtles. Epithelial hyperplasia of the Harderian gland’s duct, observed in animals suffering from vitamin A deficiency, can also lead to an enlargement of the eyelid, but in these cases the change usually involves both eyelids symmetrically. This is the first description of a Harderian gland adenocarcinoma in a Florida Red-bellied Turtle.
Harderian glands of the Wistar albino rats normal and adrenalectomized were investigated by light microscopy. In normal, these glands have a tubuloalveolar structure. The gland is located in the medio posterior aspect of the orbit. It is lobulated and appears homogeneous in colour and texture. Harderian gland consist of tubules with wide lumina lined by a single layer of columnar epithelial cells surrounded by myoepithelial cells within their basal lamina. It contains porphyrin pigment which is stored as solid intraluminal deposits. The glandular epithelium possesses two cell types, termed A and B. Type A cells are more numerous. The single excretory duct of the gland is directly continuous with endpieces at the hilus and opens nasally and ventrally to the third eyelid. The excretory duct is accompanied by many acini of small serous glands around it. The tubuloalveoli of the gland is not divided into lobules. There is no branched duct system within the gland. The secretion seems to be associated with porphyrins, is essentially released by exocytosis, but holocrine secretion also occurs. The single excretory duct is lined by a stratified epithelium. The gland is surrounded by a collagenous capsule. The adrenalectomy, caused degenerative changes in the glands. Epithelial height was lower than in normal gland epithelium. Most of the acini were completely disorganised. The acinar lumina were filled with porphyrin debris. The results suggest that rat harderian glands are sensitive to adrenal androgen changes in both male and female rats
– 244 . 2. Altunay , H. , Kozlu , T. ( 2004 ) The fine structure of the Harderian gland in the ostrich (Struthio camelus). Anat. Histol. Embryol. 33 , 141 – 145
. (1983) Rhythms in immunoreactive melatonin in the retina and harderian gland of rats: persistence after pinealectomy. Life Sci. 32 , 1229-1236. Rhythms in immunoreactive melatonin in the retina and harderian gland of rats