In German literature Heinrich Heine is regarded as one of the founders of musical feuilleton, a genre that he developed to the highest mastery with the means of irony and satire. In his music reviews Heine discussed repeatedly many of his musical contemporaries; he met leading composers of his time like Mendelssohn-Bartholdy, Meyerbeer, Berlioz, Chopin, Liszt, and Wagner personally. The fact that the relationship between Heine and Liszt (they got to know each other in 1831 in Paris) was not without problems, is a commonplace. Rainer Kleinertz describes it as ambivalent. The essay examines Heine’s musical judgements about Liszt, focussing on the question of Liszt’s interest in the fine arts. In the tenth letter from Über die Französische Bühne. Vertraute Briefe an August Lewald (1837), Heine accused Liszt of philosophical eclecticism, because he would change his beliefs like hobbyhorses. Are there contradictions and inconsistencies also in Liszt’s thinking about art and music that justified such an ambivalent attitude on the part of Heine? Finally, Liszt replied Heine in the seventh of his Lettres d’un bachelier ès musique, dated Venice, 15 April 1838.
Interview data from a survey among Danish researchers, mainly from social sciences (all disciplines, about on third of all)
are used to examine connections between researcher political attitudes and their disciplinary cognitive paradigms. Included
are researchers’ convictions concerning world view hypotheses, their basic assumptions regarding the subject matter in their
fields of study, e.g., individuals, social action, and society as a whole, and their epistemic ideals and goals. Political
attitude is indicated by researchers’ voting in the 1994 general election of the Danish Parliament.
The results show big differences between social science disciplines regarding voting pattern. The analysis also clearly demonstrates
connections between disciplinary cognitive convictions and political attitudes. The connections are interpreted as expressions
of hermeneutic, historical links between political discourse formations and disciplinary paradigms.
Univariate measures of concentration (or dispersion) can be applied to the description of the citation patterns within a text corpus, and also the citation links between that corpus and an alternative (possibly contextual) literature. To assist in this, a simple data-flow schema introduced byLano to assist with the design of software can be used to provide an appropriate data-definitional tool. The schema, as applied here, comprises: (1) a matrix of cells containing 0 or 1 values (in its non-diagonal cells) representing within-corpus citations, with the diagonal cells representing the corpus documents; and (2) two associated vectors of cells which record the total numbers of citations that link the corpus documents with an external-to-corpus literature. An initial data-exploration based on a application of this schema to a trial document corpus is reported. On this basis, several provisional conjectures are put forward to attract further research on data of this type. These conjectures include: (1) Concentration amongst citationsto corpus items from within a young corpus is less than it is amongst citationsby corpus items to that corpus; (2) A young literature corpus imports significantly more information from its external world than it exports to it; and (3) Information transfer from an into contextual literature dominates within-corpus information transfer. The author emphasises that these are conjectures at this stage, not hypotheses.
Implied by the norm of universalism in modern science, known from Merton's CUDOS-normset, is the demand that scientific careers should be open to talents, independent of personalattributes such as race, religion, class, and gender. In spite of a large amount of studies related toCUDOS-norms very few deals with class origin of researchers. Based on a survey among a sampleof 788 Danish researchers this article investigates class bias, compared to gender bias inresearcher recruitment and careers, and researcher assessments of impartiality and objectivity ofevaluations and reward system. The data demonstrate very strong class bias, and also confirm thewell-known gender bias in recruitment, class bias being the strongest. This is shown to be mainlybecause of bias in the educational system, however. Concerning later career attainment bias is alsofound, but much weaker, and most pronounced concerning social origin. Regarding researcherassessments of impartiality there are no indications of strong mistrust among researchers ingeneral; nor are there significant differences in degree of trust in reward system, conditioned byclass origin or gender. In conclusion, the analysis does not lend strong support to an assumption ofdeviance from norms of universalism.
According to the evidence of an entry in the so-called Lichnowsky sketchbook, at the beginning of the 1840s, Franz Liszt proposed - in addition to the Swiss and Italian books - also a German volume to his cycle Années de pèlerinage. The study deals with this compositional plan, identifying and analysing the pieces referred to in the sketchbook. Interestingly, the plan consists rather of vocal works than piano pieces including the titles of nationalistic male choruses and romantic Rheinlieder inspired by German poets such as Ernst Moritz Arndt, Theodor Körner, Heinrich Heine and Felix Lichnowsky. The study also examines the autobiographical and political background of the proposed volume, which seems to be in close connection partly with Liszt's German concert tours, partly with the contemporary French-German conflict concerning the national identity of the Rhinland.