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The tragedies of Hercules and Orpheus in Vergil’s Georgics anticipate their respective elevations in the afterlife.

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Summary

The remains of the Visegrád Summer palace indicate that it followed closely upon the Italian development of all'antica villa constructions according to descriptions by Pliny the Younger. On the basis of the close relationship of the Visegrád garden to the Palazzo Venezia in Rome, the role of Giovanni Dalmata, also working for Pope Paul II, is taken into consideration in this study. The transmission to Hungary of a wide-spread type of Quattrocento fountain is also attributed to this artist, whose authorship of the Visegrád Hercules fountain is here proved by stylistic comparisons with his Roman and Dalmatian works.

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Silius Italicus in the third book of the Punica describes the temple of Melqart in Gades where Hannibal offers up a sacrifice to the god. The temple is presented as a sanctuary of Hercules because it corresponds better to the characterization of Hannibal and his irreverence for the gods is more evident. Silius is the only one to mention the labours of Hercules depicted on the doors of the temple. As the description of these pictures cannot be found in any other authors it is most likely that those are the invention of Silius’ fantasy and the ekphrasis (as the other ones in the poem) has a literary function: to foreshadow Hannibal’s destiny.

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According to the official propaganda Aeneas was one of the most important figures in the mythical-historical past of Rome. However, we hardly meet his figure in the Fasti : he is usually presented as rescuing the gods of Troy, the Penates. As opposed to Aeneas, the Arcadian Euander is presented with the function of even replacing him in many respects. Euander, as Aeneas, appears in few stories, nevertheless, his figure is characterised with such sympathy and the foundation of such significant cults is attributed to him that he becomes superior to Aeneas in the text. Numa Pompilius emerges as an alternative to Romulus in the Fasti . Augustus intended to represent the values symbolised by both Romulus and Numa, however, in the Fasti , his figure is rather connected with the poet and with the ideal ruler of his imagination than with the princeps personally. It is striking that although Augustus tried to present also Numa as his forerunner, we cannot find this idea in the Fasti .

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Juno, the goddess of marriage who is able – in her form of Lucina – to bring children to light, does not appear to be particularly “motherly” in the ancient sources. I will explain this paradox showing that both attitudes are aspects of Juno’s control over motherhood and childbirth, which can manifest itself both in a negative and in a positive way. Moreover, I will show how control over motherhood and childbirth is nothing but one of the numerous tasks which the feminea dea par excellence has to perform in order to regulate the roles of the Roman women.

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: valószínűleg a Küküllő megyei Szásznádas és Szászmagyaros falvak. 5. Vö. Szirtes Zsófia: Az “Erdélyi Hydra” és a “Német Hercules”. Daniel Wolff a Rákóczi-szabadságharcról. Hadtörténelmi Közlemények CXXI. 2008/2, 403

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, pp. 369 – 387 . Pascale , E. 2009 : Death and Resurrection in Art . Los Angeles Peter , R. 1978 : Hercules . In Roscher , W. H. : Ausführliches Lexikon der griechischen und römischen Mythologie . Hildesheim–New York, colls. 2253

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The Tarragona Museum is in possession of a gem engraved with a satyr-citharode dressed as Hercules (Nr. 7543). The gem, according to the inscription, is the work of Scylax, an engraver at the court of Claudius and Nero. With the figure of the satyr-citharode, Scylax expressed his disapproval of Nero, the tyrant who proclaimed himself a great sportsman and artist.

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The messenger speeches in some of Seneca's tragedies (the most extensive ones can be read in Agamemnon and Hercules Furens) constitute special epic details of the works. Their narrative technique, intertextual references and representation of time link them not with the dramatic literary form, but with the epic one, and Vergil's Aeneid is, beyond any doubt, their most important 'hypertextus'. The setting of the messenger reports has not been subordinated to the dramatic efficacy of the main conflict, they produce rather a generic multiplicity. The reform of closed literary forms and the generic heterogeneity are not unique phenomena in the literary life of this period; the meaning and importance of the innovation made by Seneca cannot be judged separately from the most important literary achievements of the period: Luc an's Bellum Civile and Petronius' Satyricon

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