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Après avoir brièvement rappelé les circonstances historiques de sa construction, Szilveszter Terdik fait l’inventaire de la décoration religieuse de la cathédrale. Il montre notamment l’effort de fidélité aux grands principes de l’art byzantin tout en décrivant certaines inflexions dévoilant l’intention de rapprochement avec Rome ; double tendance renforcée par l’implication de deux artistes aux parcours différents.

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Abstract

A special iconographic interpretation of the Holy Trinity is represented by an engraving kept in the Strahov abbey library of the Premonstratensian canons of Prague. The print was made after Dionysius Strauss' drawing and is the artist's first extant holy image engraved in copperplate. In the monastery of Hradiško u Olomouce Strauss was regarded as the artist of the order respected for the inventiveness of his themes. It is a known fact from 1695 that he presented a painting on the birthday of prior Bernard Wanzke showing the crucified Christ with the Father and the Holy Spirit with lambs feeding on the blood gushing forth from the Son's side. Undoubtedly, the graphic sheet marked “P. Dion. Straus delin. — J. Tscherning sculp.” was made after the lost painting. The words in the banderole above the composition “ut vitam habeant” (that they may have life) are from St John's gospel (Jn 10,10).

A somewhat modified variant of the theme is a copperplate engraving also from the late 17th century by Johann Gaspar Gutwein (1669–1730) who worked in Prague, Brno, Augsburg, Regensburg and Graz. The print marked “J. G. Gutwein sc. Brunae” probably adorned the flyleaf of a book. This precious specimen of my private collection shows an infant angel with clasped hands behind the cross, with a quotation from St Luke's gospel on the banderole falling down by its elbow: “… parata sunt omnia” (all things are now ready, Luke 14,17). The words refer to the feast of the flock of the Saviour. The blood and water from the side of Christ collected in a pearl-shell refer to the life-giving and maintaining sacraments of baptism and the eucharist from which the scrawny lambs will gain strength.

There is a little known 18th century oil painting in the St Maurice Benedictine monastery of Bakonybél. There are no inscriptions, but white lambs are feeding on the life-giving blood which has cleaned them, flowing from Christ's side into a bowl. The tree of paradise with the serpent is in the background to indicate that Christ's sacrifice on the cross was made in reparation of the original sin: Christ defeated Satan on the cross. This peculiar version of the Holy Trinity representations originated from catholic Moravia in the Tridentine revival of spirituality in Central Europe, as the above described depictions suggest.

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Next to his signature, Viennese painter Johann Ignaz Cimbal often added a peculiar sign in his frescoes and oils. It is a combination of letters, appearing in a different form in each of the studied cases (Zalaegerszeg, Oberlaa, Zwettl, Peremarton, Tornyiszentmiklós, Nagykároly [ Carei]), which – and the poor state of the works – make the identification of the letters difficult. In most cases the sign reads VSG, so it is not the initials of the painter.

In some Cimbal works the three letters also appear with iconographic meaning. On the picture of the King Saint Stephen side altar in the parish church of Tornyiszentmiklós the letters shining in the halo around the Holy Cross were identified as VSG earlier and decoded as “Vera Sacra Crux”. However, it is more likely that this abbreviation hides the same meaning as the monograms next to Cimbal’s signatures.

Guidance to the elucidation of the monogram was provided by the ceiling fresco in the southern vestry-room of Székesfehérvár cathedral. The clearly readable VSG abbreviation appears in the corners of the triangle symbolizing the Holy Trinity, which leaves no doubt that it is in connection of the Holy Trinity. The most obvious explanation is the letters being the initials of the German words for the three divine entities, Vater, Sohn and [Heiliger] Geist.

The attribution of the picture (Maria Immaculata) on the high altar of the parish church of Sárospatak to Cimbal was suggested on the basis of this motif, here in three corners of a triangular aureole around the Ark of Covenant. The attribution is also confirmed by style critical analyses. (Analogous are Cimbal’s Immaculata figures in Zalaeregszeg, Tornyiszentmiklós and Székesfehérvár.)

The abbreviation alluding to the Holy Trinity, which is perfectly embedded in the iconographic fabric of some paintings, was also used by Cimbal independently of the theme, attached to his name. Inserting a sign referring to the Holy Trinity above his name must have been a religious gesture. Having completed a picture, the painter crossed himself, as it were, offering his work to God. He sealed his offering with the mysterious sign of God “in the name of the Father, the Son and the Holy Ghost”. (A similar religious gesture must underlie the signature 70 of an early Cimbal work, the Saint Anne altar picture in Vienna’s Barmherzigenkirche. The abbreviation “Zimbal i. VR” is traditionally interpreted as “In veneratione” with the explanation that the painter made the picture as a votive offering.) Cimbal always created a new composition out of the three letters, so it cannot have been his aim to make a recognizable constant “trade-mark”. (For this purpose he used his name with the customary addition “invenit et pinxit”.) The linking of the three letters is not just a customary formal solution as in monograms, but it has a meaning: it symbolizes the unity of the three divine persons, just as the circle in the triangle in Székesfehérvár.

An extremely expressive iconographic solution needs special mention, applied almost to each of his depictions of the Holy Trinity in Hungary. It is the sceptre held by the three coeternal persons (hence it has extreme length). As it occurs so frequently, it cannot be part of an occasional client’s wish but much rather it is the painter’s invention. Perhaps a comprehensive examination of the entire oeuvre will discover further examples in support of the author’s hypothesis that the Holy Trinity was a particularly favourite theme of Cimbal. It was again his personal devotion that led him to use the Holy Trinity monogram.

The motivation behind commissions for religious art works in the period was first of all the client’s personal religiosity. The religious motifs of the artists can usually only be inferred from indirect data and in connection with few works. One such sign is that for the duration of painting the frescoes Franz Anton Maulbertsch joined the Scapular Confraternity of Székesfehérvár, while the group portrait on the organ loft of Sümeg permits the assumption that he took part in the devotions of the Angelic Society founded by bishop Márton Padányi Biró. His pupil Johannes Pöckel who settled in Sümeg was a member of the local Confraternity of the Cord. Unfortunately, no information to this effect is known about Cimbal.

His signature and Holy Trinity monogram testify that not only the client but also the painter offered his work to God.

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Solovyov's sophiological teaching had a significant influence on the development of Russian philosophy of religion. He contributed a new discovery to the science of sophiology: he threw light on the complicated relationship between the idea of unity originating from God and uniting the whole world, and between the methaphysics of Sophia. The teologeme of Sophia is manifested in Solovyov's philosophical system, in his poetic intuitions and mystical visions as well as in the gnostic texts, in the Kabbala tradition and also in the philosophical and biblical teachings. The Divine Wisdom, as the idea of an endeavour to unity appears in a parallel way with the different aspects of the divine and individual Sophia: such as the divine material, the eternal femininity, the Spirit of the world, the image of  ideal humanity etc. The mystery of the Holy Trinity, ie. that God symbolises three persons' unity in love (that of the Father, the Son and the Holy Spirit), the idea and notion of the number three played an important role in the formation of Solovyov's sophiological teaching. All these were instrumental in the formation of his many-sided and complex Sophia-interpretation.

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The introduction of new feasts was regularly accompanied by a kind of rearrangement of the liturgical material. In the beginning Transfiguratio Domini was not obligatory feast, but was introduced gradually in more and more churches from the 10th century on. During the greater part of its history it had no special Proper for the mass, but different chants were drawn from the masses of traditional feasts, like Christmas, Epiphany, the Easter season and even the Holy Trinity. In the sources that include at all a mass for Transfiguratio we see different sets of Proper chants, borrowed from different feasts. The status of the feast changed when pope Callixtus III extended the feast to the Universal Church in memory of the victory gained by the Hungarians over the Turks. After that a new Proper was compiled, which, however, was slowly adopted by the different dioceses. It is questionable whether new melodies were also composed or the texts were sung to existing melodies instead. In Hungary the feast understandably gained special importance and apparently there was a need for Proper melodies. Since, however, there were no ordered melodies (or they were not at hand), every scriptor had to compose or find their own version. The paper demonstrates a great variety of solutions through the different melodies set to the Alleluia text Candor est lucis.

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Crosses, “images” in Outer Somogy . The article presents 215 sacral minor monuments and small structures found in public places in the northern part of Somogy County, classified by type. Most of the wayside crosses are made of stone. The research investigated the time they were erected, their place, motivation, inscriptions and destruction. The Holy Trinity statues were made from the end of the 18th century, those of Saint Wendelin from the early 19th century. Their geographical distribution corresponds to the denominational relations in the small region. Statues of Saint John of Nepomuk date from the end of the 19th century. The research also covers the fate of the bells used in the outlying settlements (known as puszta ) on the former large estates, and their highly varied belfries. Other sacral minor monuments are not found in the area studied, or only in very small numbers. The article presents in detail an unusual minor monument ( fakép = ‘wooden image’). The plant ornamentations of the sacral minor monuments appear to be “more conservative” than the small private gardens.

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The first treatise dealing explicitly with theology of the icon in medieval Rus’ was preserved in an anonymous work known as Poslanie iconopistsu ( Letter to the Iconographer ) written at the end of the 15th century which contains three sermons. These three sermons later became part of the famous Prosvetitel ( Enlightener ) compiled by Joseph of Volokolamsk. The paper makes an investigation into the problem of the hidden sources of the Letter to the Iconographer which almost entirely consists of verbal quotations from different earlier theological texts. Among the cited writings there are five Byzantine dogmatic works written in defense of icons and translated into Church Slavonic which are of outstanding importance. In the case of these works the method of borrowing their passages and the additional content these gain in their new contexts where they were transplanted shed light to the aims and interests of the 15–16th century Russian theologian which are apparently different from those of his Byzantine predecessors. It is especially interesting to observe how the Russian author tries to legitimate the icon of the Holy Trinity by the aid of the different arguments of Byzantine apologists.

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The first treatise dealing explicitly with theology of the icon in medieval Rus’ was preserved in an anonymous work known as Poslanie iconopistsu ( Letter to the Iconographer ) written at the end of the 15th century which contains three sermons. These three sermons later became part of the famous Prosvetitel ( Enlightener ) compiled by Joseph of Volokolamsk. The paper makes an investigation into the problem of the hidden sources of the Letter to the Iconographer which almost entirely consists of verbal quotations from different earlier theological texts. Among the cited writings there are five Byzantine dogmatic works written in defense of icons and translated into Church Slavonic which are of outstanding importance. In the case of these works the method of borrowing their passages and the additional content these gain in their new contexts where they were transplanted shed light to the aims and interests of the 15–16th century Russian theologian which are apparently different from those of his Byzantine predecessors. It is especially interesting to observe how the Russian author tries to legitimate the icon of the Holy Trinity by the aid of the different arguments of Byzantine apologists.

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Az emlékművek fontos szerepet játszanak életünkben. A történeti városok a huszadik században jelentős átalakuláson mentek keresztül. Ezzel a meglévő emlékművek történelmi szerepe felértékelődött. Az építészeti irányzatok, elvek és módszerek, melyek korunk rekonstrukciójában is fontos szerepet játszanak, csak alapos és tudományos mélységű tapasztalatok mentén születhetnek meg. A hazai XVIII. és XIX. századi emlékművek döntő többsége Budapesten található. A megváltozott környezet és építési technológia a műemlékvédelem új szempontjait teremtik meg. Az Építészettörténeti és Műemléki Tanszék egy csoportja, Dr. Istvánfi Gyula vezetése alatt, egyes emlékművek helyreállítása során több fontos szakmai következtetésre jutott. A cikk négy különböző alaptípussal foglalkozik: Szentháromság-emlék a XVIII. századból, a Danubius kút a XIX. századból, a Szent István-emlék és a Millenniumi emlékmű a XIX. és XX. század fordulójáról, valamint szó esik a XIX. században létesített Deák-szobor problémáiról is. A felmerült problémák részben egymással megegyezőek, részben pedig sajátosak. Mindegyik esetben fontos a jelenlegi műszaki és társadalmi környezettel való összevetés. A példák során szerzett tapasztalatok eredményesen használhatók más helyreállítás során is.

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