In this paper, I review how formal features are currently regarded and used in the Minimalist Program. Although features are the cornerstone in Minimalism, they are used in many different and conflicting ways. Features may seem particularly relevant to affix-hop because the affix has to be checked against a higher verb or auxiliary. Chomsky’s (1957) analysis of affix-hop has the affix connected with an auxiliary, e.g., the -en of have-en, move to a verb on its right, as in have see-en. This analysis is one of the high points of early generative grammar but, with each new instantiation of the generative model, it has needed adjustments and the phenomenon is still debated. I will elaborate on a proposal made in van Gelderen (2013) who argues that interpretable tense, mood, or aspect are in a low position being probed by the relevant uninterpretable features in a high position. This view I claim is consistent with data from change and acquisition. I also discuss the implications of this reliance on features for learnability and Universal Grammar.
Authors:L. Franco, C. Sánchez, R. Bravo, A. Rodriguez, C. Barriga, and Javier Juánez
Abourashed EA, Koetter U, Brattstrom A: In vitro binding experiments with a valerian, hops and the fixed combination extract (Ze91019) to selected central nervous system receptor. Phytomedicine 11, 633
A sensitive thin-layer chromatographic method has been established for quantification of xanthohumol in hops (
L.) and hop products. Chromatographic separation was performed on silica gel 60 HPTLC plates with toluene-dioxane-acetic acid, 77 + 20 + 3 (
), as mobile phase. The plates were scanned densito-metrically at
= 368 nm. The method was validated for precision, repeatability, and accuracy. It was found to be precise — intra-day and inter-day
were 1.7% and 2.3%, respectively. Instrumental precision and repeatability for the method were found to be 0.38 and 1.5 (%
), respectively. The accuracy was checked by measuring the recovery at three levels; average recovery was 103.9%. The method was used for the estimation of xanthohumol in hop extracts and xanthohumol-enriched beer and was confirmed to be suitable for this purpose.
(ed.) 1968: Popular Beliefs and Folklore Traditions in Siberia . Budapest: Akadémiai Kiadó.
Popular Beliefs and Folklore Traditions in Siberia
BALZER, Marjorie Mandelstam 1995: The Poetry of Shamanism, in: KIM, Tae-gon-HOPPÁL
Authors:J. Marešová, L. Remenárová, M. Horník, M. Pipíška, J. Augustín, and J. Lesný
The aim of this paper was to obtain quantitative data of foliar uptake kinetics and long distance transport of zinc in tobacco
(Nicotiana tabacum L.) and hop (Humulus lupulus L.) plants. Zinc was used as a model of microelement and toxic metal, tobacco and hop as a representatives of agriculturally
important plants. A tip of leaf blade was immersed in the solution spiked with 65ZnCl2 and foliar uptake and translocation to other parts of the plant grown in nutrient solution was measured by gamma-spectrometry
and autoradiography. We found that foliar zinc uptake by both plants is dependent on the initial metal concentration within
the range C0 = 10–100 μmol dm−3 ZnCl2. Zinc is immobilized mainly in immersed part of the contact leaf and only <1% is transported to non-immersed parts of the
leaf. At C0 = 0.1 mmol dm−3 ZnCl2 concentrations >2.5 mg/g Zn and 4.8 mg/g Zn (dry wt.) in immersed part of tobacco and hop leaf plant, respectively were found
after 5 days of exposure. Low mobility of zinc entering the plant via the leaf surface can be attributed to the immobilization
of zinc into Zn–ligand complexes with high stability constants log K at pH 6.0–8.0, such as the reaction products of Zn2+ ions with citric acid, histidine or phosphates. Zinc can be extracted from dried leaves by the solutions of inorganic salts,
carboxylic acids, amino acids and synthetic complexing ligands such as EDTA. Anionic (SDS) and non-ionic (Tween 40) surfactants
causes the decrease of the Zn foliar uptake, but not translocation of Zn from the contact leaf area. Obtained data are discussed
from the point of view of possible limited efficiency of liquid formulations designed for practical applications as Zn foliar
Authors:Grzegorz Jóźwiak, Barbara Majer-Dziedzic, Justyna Kwiecińska, and Monika Waksmundzka-Hajnos
Commercially available hop pellets of different origins were extracted by use of ethanol and water, chromatographed on silica layers by use of nonaqueous eluents, chemically derivatized and observed in ultraviolet (UV) light for the localization of component bands. The plates were developed in optimized systems, and direct bioautographic method by use of Bacillus subtilis and Escherichia coli strains was applied for the examination of the antimicrobial activities of hop components. The method enables for the identification of bactericidal/bacteriostatic components in the extracts of different polarities and shows differences in the composition of extracts from various varieties from an antimicrobial point of view.
Old Chinese Records. Hong Kong 1885 .
Hoppál 2015a K. Hoppál : Daqin and the Luminous Religion from Daqin—the Nestorian Stele of Xian New Aspects to the Chinese Reception of the West . Tisicum XXIII ( 2014 /2015) 327 – 332 . [in Hungarian