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To be a Jew in communist Hungary between 1948-1989 was to be a person carrying a stigma. Jewish identity was suppressed in public and in many cases in private. Since the demise of the communist regime Hungarian Jews have begun to proclaim their identity publicly. In short Jews are “coming out”. In this paper I describe the ways in which Jewish identity is expressed and I analyse the factors, both internal and external that have facilitated such expression.

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related to being a Hungarian Jew: “[T]his results in his becoming honestly patriotic though having started out as a Jewish boy from Dunaszerdahely. No wonder that during his wandering in Persia, upon arriving in Persepolis he writes on the ancient ruins

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: "The Position of Hungarian Jewry After the Liberation", in Hungarian-Jewish Studies, ed. Randolph L. Braham (New York: World Federation of Hungarian Jews, 1966), 240. Neil Belton: The Good Listener. Helen Bamber; A Life

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Christian churches both Catholic and Protestant experienced a renewal of their theology and a revival of their impact on society in the interwar period; and they could count on the continuous good will of the conservative Horthy regime. Convinced that the leading role of Jewish intellectuals in the 1918-1919 revolutionary upheaval resulted the near ruin of the traditional society and amidst the shock caused by the collapse of historical Hungary, some leading members of Protestant churches endorsed various forms of political anti-Semitism, including the acceptance of some type of curtailment of religious equality, which had once been acclaimed as a significant achievement of nineteenth-century Protestant liberalism. While maintaining their sympathy for the Horthy regime till the very last, the leaders of the churches opposed the persecution and deportation of Hungarian Jews, which began escalating after March 1944. This paper will discuss some of the possible contexts of the Reformed Church's public statements concerning the Holocaust after 1945 and will focus mainly on the writings and sermons of the leading figure of the Reformed Church Bishop László Ravasz (1882-1975).

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Hungarian Studies
Authors: Kristian Feigelson and Catherine Portuges

This paper explores intersections of memory and cinematic representation in contemporary Hungarian film culture. Since the fall of the Berlin Wall in 1989, with the concomitant financial crisis in Hungarian cinema, a number of films have foregrounded questions of Jewish identity, a taboo subject on Hungarian screens after 1945 when nationalistic historiography supported an official government culture of denial with regard to responsibility for the deportation and extermination of some 550 000 Hungarian Jews. The production of relatively few narrative and documentary films on this subject, the essay suggests, is perhaps in part attributable to the fact that the Hungarian uprising of 1956 tended to eclipse the drama of Jewish deportation and genocide. The authors consider post-socialist filmmakers’ uses of the past in the context of the country’s current nationalistic climate, interrogating the impact of controversal films such as László Nemes’s Son of Saul (2015, Grand Prix, Cannes Film Festival ; Academy Award for best foreign film) within a Hungarian society still conflicted about its Holocaust trauma.

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Polgárosodás (Budapest: Atlantisz, 1993), 295-318. On the 1848/49 situation, Béla Bernstein: The 1848 Hungarian War of Independence and the Jews (Budapest, 1898) (Reprinted by Múlt és Jövő Kiadó in 1998); 1848-1849 in the Life of the Hungarian Jews, ed

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. Körner , Andräs 2013 Hogyan eltek? A magyar zsidok hetköznapi elete 1867-1940 [How Did They Live? Everyday Life of Hungarian Jews 1867-1940]. Budapest : Corvina . Mars , Leonard 2003 Coming Out: Jewish Identity in Contemporary Hungary

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befogadás és kirekesztés politikája [Hungarians-Jews-Nationalism. The politics of inclusion and exclusion]. Budapest: Új Mandátum. Magyarok-Zsidók-Nacionalizmus. A befogadás és kirekesztés politikája KÁNYÁDI, Sándor 1989

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the Budapest Jewry, 1867–1941]. In Ferenc Lendvai L., Anikó Sohár and Pál Horváth (eds). 1990. Hét évtized a hazai zsidóság életében . [Seven decades in the lives of Hungarian Jews]. Budapest : MTA . 126 – 144

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. “Igen migen, haf de fliegen,’ is a slightly mocking expression used for Hungarian Jews, translating roughly to “Hungarian Jews, go jump in the lake.’ (Source: IgenMigen Chef Restaurant Facebook Page). 5 http://lunch-box.co.il/product/going-paprikash-the-best-of-hungarian-jewish-cuisine .

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