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Баллада «Уэльские барды» Я. Араня и ее русский перевод Л. Мартынова

К двухсотлетию со дня рождения классика венгерской поэзии Яноша Араня

Studia Slavica
Author:
Михай Петер

After the suppression of the Hungarian freedom fight in 1849 and the following period of repression, the preeminent poet János Arany was asked to praise the Austrian emperor on the occasion of his visit to Hungary. Arany rejected the request and wrote instead the allegorical ballad The Bards of Wales relating to 500 Welsh bards burned at the stake by order of the English king Edward I as they refused to praise the bloody conqueror of their country. Martynov’s translation successfully renders the idea of the poem and also its high poetic values: conciseness and dramatic dynamism of rhythm supported by inner rhyming.

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"Girl at the well"- the first poem of the first book (1847) of Branko Radi-čević - pioneer of the Serbian romantic lyrical poesy - is the poetic overture of a new area. It is the prototype of the just starting popular (folksy) diskurs; sounds like a real folksong, but written by Branko Radičević.      The poem was translated - as the subtitle says "from the original Serbian" - by the Hungarian poet János Vajda at the end of his lifecarreer, in 1885. The translation has not succeeded well, it is very clumsy, in spite of the fact that Vajda was one of the greatest Hungarian poets.            Thesis and final conclusion of the study: at that time Vajda had been over on his popular style, and wrote mainly philosophical poems. In addition, the popular model was pushed into the background in the Hungarian poetry.

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The Hungarian poet Mihály Babits translated three poems of Jovan Dučić. The translated poems were published in 1932 in the Hungarian literary journal Nyugat (‘West’). The Hungarian translations faithfully interpret the content, and preserve the atmosphere of the original Serbian poems. However, the verse does not follow the original form. Babits applies blank verse, without rhymes, using free number of syllables. All in all, the translations proved to be real pieces of art, thanks to the true atmosphere preserved from the original poems.

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A new generation of Hungarian poets appeared in the 1960s, among them such excellent translators of Russian poetry as László Lator, Zsuzsa Rab, and András Fodor. Fodor was in his early twenties when he translated Pushkin’s Ruslan and L’udmila. This paper displays some characteristic excerpts of the poem so as to show how the translator succeeded in finding means to reproduce the onomapoetic and lexical elements of the original, the art of portraying the heroes, depicting landscapes and erotic scenes, and conveying the author’s lyric and ironical disgressions from the narration.

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Der Tod und der Blick

Der Andere bei Petőfi und Sartre

Hungarian Studies
Author:
Adorján Kovács

Abstract

The Hungarian poet Sándor Petőfi was neither the nature boy oriented only to folk song nor the proto-socialist revolutionary as the German reception in the 19th and 20th centuries saw him. The short poems of the “Clouds” cycle published in 1846, for example, are aphoristically pointed pessimistic meditations. In the piece presented (Itt állok a rónaközépen…, Here I stand in the middle of the plain…), the speaker recognises the deep gulf between himself and “the other”. Both a death symbolism can be attributed to “the other” and Sartre's phenomenology of the gaze can be applied to his perception, revealing a complexity of Petőfi's poetry that suggests its reassessment.

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Travel writing has enjoyed continuous success since the Renaissance, and has been an important factor in shaping perceptions of individual and group identities. Especially during the second half of the eighteenth century and throughout the nineteenth century travelogues constituted an influential part of the discourse on culture, and helped, through their descriptions of the foreign and a reaffirmation of what is “us”, establish the ideology of nationalism. Works by British authors such as William Wordsworth and the travel writings of Hungarian poet Sándor Petőfi and politician, essayist, and novelist József Eötvös offer examples of different strategies of using landscape as means of affirming contours of national identity.

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Gyula Illyés, Hungarian poet, fiction writer, essayist and dramatist, emigrated to Paris after the fall of the Hungarian Republic in 1919. There, he came into contact with the working class movement as well as with surrealistic circles. Strongly influenced by modern French writing, Illyés nevertheless adopted realism in his novels. He reflects upon his emigration times in Paris in his novel, Hunok Párisban [ Huns in Paris ]. The present paper focuses on the following main issues in relation to this novel: types of description, panoramic views, walks, atmosphere of certain districts, the stylistic characteristics of the descriptive sequences. Illyés’s description of Paris is a classic example of a type of urban literature that was pioneered in Paris of the 1840s, and was used to celebrate the diversity and dynamismof themodern city. At the center of his description was the figure of the flâneur , or urban stroller, who embodied and represented the quintessential qualities of urban modernity.

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The poetry of János Pilinszky was influenced by the philosophical mysticism of Simone Weil and by the atmosphere of the novels of Francois Mauriac. Their profoundly catholic vision of the world (expressed or inexpressed) is oriented to the universe and to the union of all creatures in three different ways, albeit absolutely authentic and essentially identical. In this paper, I will try to highlight these parallelisms through some notions which are very important in the works of the three authors. I set out from the state of deep solitude and isolation of the reviewed poems of the Hungarian poet János Pilinszky, touching upon the concepts of attention, obscurity, purity, grace and many others by a comparative analysis in a special circular way.

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The paper aims at a linguistically based analysis of one of the pearls of Russian love lyrics written by Tyutchev, and of its two Hungarian translations. Master of small forms, the poet concentrates his poetic devices (ambiguities, antitheses, repetitions, etc.) to a high degree, and attains to a harmonious fusion of different stylistic traits. The translation of the poem made by Lőrinc Szabó, a well-known Hungarian poet of the 20th century is handicapped by the use of an intermediate text, and some elements of his own poetical vision here and there outweigh essential features of the original. The translation of Árpád Galgóczy, one of the best contemporary translators of Russian poetry, comes in a lot of instances more close to the original.

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The publication of the poetic translations of the untimely deceased Hungarian poet István Baka opens a new page in the chronicle of Russian–Hungarian literary translation. The two volumes contain more than 630 translations from 30 poets, among them many (especially authors of “samizdat” and “tamizdat” literature) were not known until now to Hungarian readers not familiar with the Russian language. Baka’s selection of poets to be translated was determined by his intense affinity to the author based on the similarity of vital experience, poetic outlook on life, and artistic skill. Like the major poets of the “Silver Age” of Russian poetry, Baka had a special gift for transubstantiation, for creating a synthesis of his own individuality with those of several famous historical and artistic personalities and mythological figures. The paper displays some characteristic excerpts to illustrate the many-sided translatory art of Baka.

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