Our data on the history of the Pannonian provinces afterwards 410 AD are extremely scarce, even the official abandonment and the cession of the province to the Huns are indirectly attested in the late antique written sources. Among them, there is a
Szűcs, J. (1975): Theoretical Elements in Master Simon of Kéza's Gesta Hungarorum (1282-1285 A. D.). Budapest (Studia Histórica Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae 96).
Thompson, E. A. (1948): A History of Attila and the Huns
The historical work of Miklós Oláh, the Hungarian humanist, was first published in Latin in Basel in 1568. In 1574 it was already translated into Polish by Cyprian Bazylik and published in Cracow. The only existing copy of this edition is a defective one with 4 pages missing at the beginning and 4 at the end of the book. Fortunately, in 1580 an Old-Belorussian manuscript translation was made which closely follows the Polish text. In our study we reconstruct the missing parts of Cyprian Bazylik's Polish translation by using the original Latin and Old-Belorussian texts. The importance of this reconstruction for the reception of the work in Poland is that Cyprian Bazylik translated the ethnonym Hunni (Huns), used in the Latin original, with the Polish word Wegrowie (Hungarians) and in this way in the Polish text “Attila the King of the Huns” is transferred to “the King of the Hungarians”.
Intellectuals and (following them) also common people remember their distant origin. Cultural memory institutions maintain references to factual and historical past, and it looks back also to mythical origins, or connections with old (since then have often been extinguished) peoples. Virgil heroificated the Trojan origin of Rome. The identity of France embraces also the Celtic Gauls, the German Franks, and the local ancestors, speaking Romance languages. Moscow heralded herself as “third Rome” (Byzantium being the “second Rome”). There are many particular forms of the so called “cultural memory”: in pointing towards the glorious or unjustly lost ancestors.Hungary is another — not neglectful — clear case of constant searching for “intermediate” forefathers. Since the Middle Ages Hungarians have been connected (both from outside or inside of the country) with the Huns, and the country’s tragic history in 15th–17th centuries was compared with that of Israel, already depicted in the Old Testament. Historians of the 18th and 19th centuries, interested in Hungary, tried to prove the “oriental” (Persian, Aryan, Turanian, etc.) bases of Hungarian language and culture. My historical report ends by the end of the 19th century, but the same tendency is actual in our days too. I call that as “proxy cultural memory” — presenting one’s own culture through a “creative reference” to different and other (old) cultures. The “proxy identity” is not constructing one’s actual identity, but it aims to invent a constructed image about something else. It has two main characteristics: it covers the times from which we do not know proper historical facts — and it is a part of ideology. As such it serves the “nation’s characterology”, ethnic stereotypes and imagology as well.
This article analyzes the flammability characteristics in order to investigate the adequacy of a newly proposed sampling method for wood and PVC materials that are commonly used for residential flooring. Experiments on commercial products were performed using a cone calorimeter according to ISO 5660-1 specifications. Samples for the test procedure were prepared in two methods: either using a cone calorimeter sample preparation method (case 1), or the proposed sample preparation method, which a simplified form for the actual constructed shape (case 2). The thermal characteristics of the common wood products differed depending on the sampling method, where the peak heat release rate (PHRR) had either two peaks for case 1 or a single peak for case 2, and the total heat rate (THR) and smoke production rate (SPR) also differed according to the case. Especially, the wood flooring differed significantly between the two cases in terms of the number of PHRR peaks and the trend of the SPR curves. Due to these differences, we presented another HRR evaluation method depending on the raw material and the size of HRR to reduce the fire hazards in flooring.
Individuals with problematic hypersexual behavior (PHB) are unable to control their sexual cravings, regardless of other situational factors. This inability to control cravings is a common trait in patients with neurological pathologies related to response inhibition. Until recently, however, it was unclear whether individuals with PHB have decreased inhibition and altered neural responses in the brain regions associated with inhibition compared to healthy control individuals, especially in the presence of distracting sexual stimuli. In this study, we examined the neural and psychological underpinnings of inhibition in individuals with PHB.
Thirty individuals with PHB and 30 healthy subjects underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging while performing a modified go/no-go task with neutral or sexual backgrounds used as distractors.
Individuals with PHB showed poorer response inhibition than healthy subjects, especially when sexual distractors were present. Further, compared to healthy control subjects, individuals with PHB showed decreased activation in the right inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) and reduced functional connectivity between the IFG and the pre-supplementary motor area (preSMA) when response inhibition was required. Finally, the reduced activation and connectivity were more pronounced in the presence of sexual distractors than in the presence of neutral distractors.
These findings suggest that individuals with PHB show reduced ability to inhibit responses that might be related to lower IFG activation and IFG-preSMA connectivity during response inhibition. Our results provide insights into the neurobiological underpinnings of poor response inhibition in individuals with PHB.
Authors:Kyoo-Tae Kim, Seung-Hun Lee, and Dongmi Kwak
Two male harbour seals (Phoca vitulina; 33 and 35 years old, respectively), housed since 2002 at a zoo for exhibition purposes, developed severe, multifocal and diffuse skin lesions. Skin scrapings and microscopy for parasites as well as pure cultures for bacteria and dermatophytes were carried out to identify the aetiological agent. Skin scrapings showed that lesions appearing on the seals were caused by an infestation of Demodex mites, which is uncommon in marine mammals, and were not due to other causative agents (parasites, bacteria or dermatophytes). Treatment with amitraz (0.01%) once a week for three weeks and with ampicillin (10 mg/kg SID per os) for six days eliminated the mites and resolved the clinical signs of demodectic mange in the harbour seals. The purpose of this report is to describe the successful treatment of naturally acquired demodectic mange with amitraz in harbour seals.