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Introduction The hydrolysis of carboxylic acid esters is one of the most studied chemical reactions because of its importance both in chemistry and biochemistry [ 1 – 9 ]. The available catalysts used for the hydrolysis of

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Abstract  

A simplified method for representing the disproportionation reactions of plutonium is illustrated. It applies to any N within the range (3 < N < 6) and at any pH that does not introduce precipitation or polymer-forming reactions. Recalculation of recent estimates of the first hydrolysis constant of the tetravalent plutonium ion improves their precision.

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Abstract  

The equilibrium constant for the first hydrolysis reaction of tetravalent plutonium is surrounded by uncertainty. A new method illustrates criteria by which the reliabilities of the numerical estimates can be judged. The new formulas are simple, the method is easy to apply, and the results are easy to compare.

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Abstract  

There is uncertainty about the numerical value of the first hydrolysis constant of the tetravalent plutonium ion. A new method for discriminating between the claims is illustrated. It suggests the traditional estimates of that constant are closer to its true value than a singular result based on a few solvent-extraction experiments. A previously unnoticed multiple point in aqueous Pu chemistry is illustrated.

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Abstract  

Current literature suggests uncertainty about the numerical values of the hydrolysis constants for tetravalent plutonium. This letter uses recent data to propose that newer methods for estimating the hydrolysis constants are not necessarily more accurate than the traditional methods.

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Abstract  

Alternative methods for estimating the numerical value of the equilibrium-constant of the first hydrolysis reaction of tetravalent plutonium are illustrated. They are applied to recent data on Pu oxidation-state distributions in HCl solutions. The new estimates of the hydrolysis constant typically agree with the traditional values.

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Abstract  

The one-oxidation-state method is used to estimate the equilibrium constant of the first hydrolysis reaction of tetravalent plutonium. The analysis of the properties of plutonium near a triple point is an alternative approach to the estimation of the hydrolysis constant.

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Abstract  

A new method for estimating the numerical value of the first hydrolysis constant of tetravalent plutonium is illustrated by examples. It uses the pH and the equilibrium fractions of two of the Pu oxidation states. They are substituted into one or more of a choice of formulas that render explicit estimates of the hydrolysis constant.

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Abstract  

Four new formulas for estimating the first hydrolysis constant of tetravalent plutonium are illustrated. They can be applied with or without an independent estimate of the Pu oxidation number.

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Abstract  

The numerical value of the first hydrolysis constant of tetravalent plutonium is uncertain by a factor of about ten. This article illustrates the estimation of that constant by a least squares method applied to simultaneous equations involving all of the Pu oxidation states.

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