If one extrapolates present social circumstances, one comes to the conclusion that much more emphasis should be placed on health and physical activity, possibly through the life-span development of younger generations, in order to avoid the negative influences of civilization. Otherwise, humans will not be able to compensate for the absence of health even with an enormous aggregation of financial and cultural goods. In other words, accumulated knowledge and capital are worth little without health. To deal with the new challenges of sport, health, and physical activity on their merits, the old-fashioned mode of thinking should be refashioned or should be replaced. This process is possible only with a number of substantial changes that will be able to influence common knowledge in order to educate an active, creative, healthy, and self-confident society. Today, in an economically and culturally unstable environment, the smallest effects can cause a number of unpredictable (favorable or unfavorable) changes in our everyday life due to negative feedback. For this very reason, in our knowledge-based society, optimal physical and mental health and their practical applicability in everyday life should be an achievable goal for the individual. This paper is addressed to explore the thinking of secondary school students about social regeneration in Hungary by asking them what kind of tools they can imagine which could help them achieve an optimal physical and mental health and how they can apply the knowledge in their future adult life. The young people involved in this research claim that physical education (PE) in secondary schools can provide an acceptable tool for the required regeneration and it can prove to be adequate in the formation of a health-confident society as well. The present paper claims, however, that physical education is able to fulfill this role only if it goes through massive structural changes taking the demands and claims of the younger generation into consideration.
Health technology assessment (HTA) is a dynamic, rapidly evolving process embracing different types of assessment that inform decisions about the value (i.e., benefits, risks and costs) of new and existing technologies. The role of HTA is to support health policy decision-making and financing in health care. In this paper we describe and analyse the German approach to cost-effectiveness analysis in health care and HTA. Two institutes operate as HTA agencies, namely the German Agency of Health Technology Assessment (DAHTA) and the Institute for Quality and Efficiency in Health Care (IQWiG). The operational principles of IQWiG are somewhat different from the rules governing HTA organizations in other countries. The efficiency frontier approach, applying an indication-specific threshold and neglecting the concept of quality-adjusted life year (QALY) are the most important differences. Previously, health gains were in focus and assessment was based exclusively on such benefits, but in 2010, cost-effectiveness analysis was introduced as an integral part of the HTA process at IQWiG. A brief comparison is also made with the HTA systems in Central-Eastern-European countries, among them concentrating mainly on Hungary.
Authors:Bert Wolterbeek, Susana Sarmento, and Tona Verburg
The present paper focuses on biomonitoring of elemental atmospheric pollution, which is reviewed in terms of larger-scaled
biomonitoring surveys in an epidemiological context. Based on the literature information, today’s availability of solar-powered
small air filter samplers and fibrous ion exchange materials is regarded as adequate or an even better alternative for biomonitor
transplant materials used in small-scaled set-ups, but biomonitors remain valuable in larger-scaled set-ups and in unforeseen
releases and accidental situations. In the latter case, in-situ biomonitoring is seen as the only option for a retrospective
study: biomoniors are there before one even knows that they are needed. For biomonitoring, nuclear analytical techniques are
discussed as key techniques, especially because of the necessary multi-element assessments in both source recognition and
single-element interpretation. To live up to the demands in an epidemiological context, larger-scaled in-situ biomonitoring
asks for large numbers of samples, and consequently, for large total sample masses, this all to ensure representation of both
local situations and survey area characteristics. Possibly, this point should direct studies into new “easy-to-sample” biomonitor
organisms, of which high masses and numbers may be obtained in field work, rather than continue with biomonitors such as lichens.
This also means that both sample handling and processing are of key importance in these studies. To avoid problems in comparability
of analytical general procedures in milling, homogenization and digestion of samples of large masses, the paper proposes to
involve only few but high-quality laboratories in the total element assessment routines. In this respect, facilities that
can handle large sample masses in the assessment of element concentrations are to be preferred. This all highlights the involvement
of large-sample-volume nuclear facilities, which, however, should be upgraded and automated in their operation to ensure the
necessary sample throughput in larger-scaled biomonitoring.
We have employed titration calorimetry to investigate the aqueous solution chemistry of the Th(IV) + oxalate coordination system. The enthalpies of formation of the two oxalic acid species and the first Th-oxalate complex have been measured at an ionic strength I=1.0M and temperature t=25°C. Corresponding entropy values were calculated from the van't Hoff equation, and a thermodynamic summary of the Th/H/oxalate system is presented in a table.
. Further, using known thermodynamic parameters and general relations, the stability constant of the complex [Co(NH3)6]3+ in nitrobenzene saturated with water was evaluated for 25 °C in the form log
In all 43 sediment samples were collected as gravity cores in depthfrom 70 to 150 cm, from the 20 sampling sites of the continental slope ofthe southern part of the Black Sea, during 1978. The samples were quantitativelyanalyzed by radioisotope excited energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometry(EDXRF) using fundamental parameter technique (FTP). The investigated sedimentsamples were the organic rich-mud components of the core samples, which wereknown as rich in metals. The metal concentration ranges were as follows: Ca(3.1–12.9%), Ti (1000–2000 µg/g), V (40–150 µg/g),Cr (30–200 µg/g), Mn (200–1500 µg/g), Ni (25–100µg/g), Cu (20–70 µg/g), Zn (20–50 µg/g), Br(15–670 µg/g), Rb (5–90 µg/g), Sr (80–700 µg/g),Y (10–20 µg/g), Mo (10–111 µg/g), Zr (20–190µg/g), Cd ( <1–5 µg/g), Sb ( <1–5 µg/g),I (10–430 µg/g), Ba (100–1650 µg/g), La (5–18µg/g), Ce (12–38 µg/g) and Nd (6–17 µg/g). Thesediment cores systematically collected in 1978 by Mineral Research and ExplorationInstitute of Turkey (MTA) are the oldest available sediment samples from theTurkish coastline of the Black Sea. Therefore, the results may be used asreferences for monitoring possible future metal pollution.
Authors:M. Pereyra, R. González, C. Creus, and C. Barassi
Data evaluating the growth promoting effects of
on wheat seedlings according to the inoculum level/root colonization effectiveness (number of bacterial cells), is scarce. Uniform 1-cm size, 72-h old wheat seedlings grown in the dark at 22 °C were inoculated with: i) 10
cv. ProINTA Federal seedling; ii) 10
cv. Buck Topacio seedling; iii) 10
heat killed bacteria (HKB) cells per cultivar seedling; iv) phosphate buffer pH 6.8 (NI) as control seedlings for both cultivars. Afterwards, seedling growth proceeded in water in the dark at 22 °C for another 48 h. Alive or dead
cells were suspended in phosphate buffer pH 6.8. Root and shoot growth were determined measuring the length and projected area of their digitalized images. When treated with inocula concentrations ranging from 10
cells per seedling, both
species reached a maximum level of colonization harboring 10
cells per seedling. No differences could be detected between NI and HKB treated seedlings for both
cv. ProINTA Federal seedlings reached the maximum growth promotion when roots were colonized with a number of bacterial cells ranging from 5 · 10
to 1.5 · 10
cv. Buck Topacio seedlings showed maximum growth promotion when 3.3 · 10
cells were present in their roots. Higher values of colonization showed no growth promoting effects with respect to the controls. It may be concluded that in these experimental conditions the optimum inoculum concentration is 5 · 10
cells per seedling for both
cv. ProINTA Federal and
cv. Buck Topacio.
at 600 °C for 6 h. The lanthanum coverage on zirconia support was named I10La–ZrO 2 . The 1-day drying of as-precipitated zirconium hydroxide was carried out at 110 °C in order to remove moisture prior to impregnation of La 3+ starting solution at