Among the first forty symphonies that Joseph Haydn wrote up to 1765, Symphony Hob. I:21 has a slow first movement that does not resemble any other, since it is not based on the usual mid-18th-century ternary or binary sonata form; its structure would be better described as a fantasy with allusions of sonata form, and this special structural case should be placed somewhere in the middle of two other notable “capriccios” from the same period: the first movement of Keyboard Trio Hob. XV:35 (a pure sonata form) and the Keyboard Capriccio Hob. XVII:1 (a pure fantasy on a single theme). Yet, the unique form of Hob. I:21 / I does not seem to be absolutely novel in the “pre-classical” repertoire, since some slow movements from Carl Philipp Emanuel Bach’s “Württemberg” Sonatas (Wq. 49 nos. 1, 3 and 6) display several common characteristics with it. Thus, the present paper, focusing on similarities between C. P. E. Bach’s and J. Haydn’s compositions during the 1760s, aims at the broadening of the subject-matter of one’s influence on the other, not only from a chronological point of view but also in terms of an interrelation between different music genres.
used to be interpreted with regard to Catullus’ Hymn to Diana. Through the analysis of the parallel motifs and the differences of both poems, the traditional elements and the “accessories” of the hymnic tradition adapted and rewritten by Horace are illustrated and clarified. While answering the questions concerning the genre, the “literary I” and the lexis of the ode, it becomes obvious, that Horace’s main intention was to utter his vocation as vates and the effect of his poem. Thus, it is not Apollo ἀλεζíκακgoς, but the self-conscious poet, who is in the centre of the
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This essay is an attempt to generalize experiences of Central and Eastern European universities in the field of European Studies over the past 20 years. The paper follows the logic of business analysis in order to come up with proposals for future action.
Processes that are taking place at the beginning of the 21st century make the creation of a new social contract absolutely essential, from the viewpoint of higher education. The Magna Charta Universitatum issued in 1988 by the rectors of the European universities and the World Declaration on Higher Education for the Twenty-first Century (UNESCO 1998) already recognized this fact. Tendencies well known and foreseeable at the end of the 20th century continued in a surprisingly accelerated form. The present European higher education reform is one of the possible ways to the creation of such a new social contract. In 2008 it became clear that the economic and financial crisis leads to a whole new situation. The future of universities could finally be interpreted and handled according to global interconnections. Practicing academic moral solidarity can help the world of universities survive the crisis without major damage. At the same time the social responsibility of universities includes assisting the world to get past the global economic crisis.
Authors:Angel-Alex Hăisan, Zizi Goschin and Mihai Avornicului
Mass migration was, is, and will always be an important topic of discussion regardless of whether it is economically, socially, or politically motivated. This is certainly a matter of great concern for Romania, currently Europe’s largest sender of migrants to Western Europe. Considering that the educational system should be of the uttermost priority, we addressed the issue of emigration propensity among Romanian teachers making use of data from our own nationwide survey. Bivariate logistic models were employed to identify the main factors behind the emigration decisions of pre-university teachers. Aiming to enrich the narrow economic perspective, we adopted a novelty approach by focusing on an overlooked determinant in emigration research studies, namely ethnicity in relation to nationality. Among Romania’s minorities, Hungarians are the most important ethnic group, accounting for 6.1% of the population, hence we explored their migration behaviour compared to Romanian ethnics. The results from the logistic regression models indicate significant differences regarding the factors that trigger the intention to initiate the emigration process for our subjects, based on their ethnicity. We found that teachers of Hungarian ethnicity display 50.6% less propensity to emigrate compared to the ones of Romanian ethnicity and we were able to shape distinct emigration profiles for the two groups.
The relationship between education and country-risk is an almost neglected question in economic literature, despite the several reasons for which these two issues could be related. In a recent article by Sequeira — Ferraz (2009) a linear relationship is documented. The present article provides evidence that the strength of the relationship between country-risk and education decreases for higher levels of GDP. It also proves that this decrease consistently applies for secondary and tertiary education levels and for the three types of risk considered: economic, financial and political. The relationship obtained here is quite robust across the different subcomponents of country-risk.
Authors:Bas van Leeuwen, Aurelian-Petruş Plopeanu and Peter Foldvari
The number of books published in a country reflects its economic, social and cultural development. Yet, all too often, the production of books is looked upon solely in economic terms, i.e. as a part of national income, or as a proxy for human capital which, in turn, might explain economic growth. In this paper, we aim to give books their day in court. Using a dataset with book titles per 1,000 inhabitants for a large number of countries since 1950, we find that the number of titles was mainly driven by the level of education and income in the lower quantiles. The reduction of printing after 1990 was, surprisingly, not caused by a rise in other media, such as the internet, but, mostly, by a reduction in the effect of education in the poorer countries.
This article demonstrates the idiosyncrasies of the Hungarian public educational system (primary, secondary and adult education) through regional and global comparisons. The main sources for comparison are data from the OECD and Eurostat as well as empirical research in Hungary. The research focused on educational attainment and the structure of the educational system, inequalities within the Hungarian educational system, educational attainment and employment, teacher salaries and teacher selection policy issues. The article proved that Hungary’s public education system is the most unequal among the OECD countries, the structures of the secondary programs are biased, employment is relatively low, the rate of adult education is among the lowest, and the quality of teachers is below average because of counter-selection processes. Most of these problems can be traced to the lack of resources and the processes generated by demographic and social changes that have not been followed by adequate policy changes. The study deals with the educational disadvantages for Roma children as well. While this phenomenon affects Europe as a whole, it affects Hungary to a much greater extent.
The intellectual structure and its evolution of library and information science (LIS) in China are analyzed with time series data from Chinese Social Sciences Citation Index which is the properest database for ACA practice in the field of social science at present. The result indicates that the subfields of Library and Information Science in China kept changing from 1998 to 2007: some subfields have emerged and developed a lot, e.g., webometrics and competitive intelligence; some subfields maintain, e.g., bibliometrics and intellectual property; and some subfields have begun to decline, e.g., cataloging. Through the comparison with the international LIS, it is found that there are some unique subfields in Chinese LIS from 1998 to 2007, such as competitive intelligence and intellectual property. At the same time, I also suggest that Chinese authors in LIS should pay more attention to the applied research in the future.
This paper presents a methodology to aggregate multidimensional research output. Using a tailored version of the non-parametric
Data Envelopment Analysis model, we account for the large heterogeneity in research output and the individual researcher preferences
by endogenously weighting the various output dimensions. The approach offers three important advantages compared to the traditional
approaches: (1) flexibility in the aggregation of different research outputs into an overall evaluation score; (2) a reduction
of the impact of measurement errors and a-typical observations; and (3) a correction for the influences of a wide variety
of factors outside the evaluated researcher’s control. As a result, research evaluations are more effective representations
of actual research performance. The methodology is illustrated on a data set of all faculty members at a large polytechnic
university in Belgium. The sample includes questionnaire items on the motivation and perception of the researcher. This allows
us to explore whether motivation and background characteristics (such as age, gender, retention, etc.,) of the researchers
explain variations in measured research performance.