Authors:T. Kousksou, A. Jamil, Y. Zeraouli, and J. Dumas
Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) is applied to analyse the process of ice melting. Experimental results were compared
to those obtained by a numerical simulation in which a conventional enthalpy formulation was applied. The effects of various
parameters on the kinetics of transformations and therefore the shape of curves has been analysed and the importance of temperature
gradients inside the sample evaluated.
Authors:X. Mao, C. Chai, S. Ma, Z. Yang, D. Xu, Y. Sun, and Q. Zhang
The concentrations of 14 elements, including Ir, Au, Co, Cr, Fe, Sr, Rb, K, Ta, Zn, Sb, Ba, Sc and Se, in the Wuxi fallen ice were determined by neutron activation analysis. The experimental results show that the relative concentration ratios of Ir/Co, Ir/Cr and Ir/Sc etc. in the ice water (0.0069, 0.00024 and 0.11, respectively) are quite close to those of Type C1 chondrite (0.0102, 0.00021 and 0.092, respectively), which implies that the fallen ice might be a piece of extraterrestrial substance.
Sodium and chlorine measurements were made by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) on stratigraphically dated ice core samples from Byrd Station, Antarctica, for the last three centuries. The time period between 1969 and 1989 showed an enhanced impact on the Antarctic ice sheets from oceans in the form of marine aerosols. A disturbed ocean-atmosphere interface due to El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) events seems to be a candidate for this observation in Antarctica.
Authors:A. Heller, L. Shi, J. Brenizer, and M. Mench
Neutron radiography (NR) and computed tomography (NCT) are important non-destructive testing tools which determine information
about an object’s interior structure and material properties. Although water quantification using 2-D neutron imaging has
been applied to fuel cells for over a decade, the development of an accurate 3-D method has only recently been demonstrated.
The 3-D water quantification technique developed at the Pennsylvania State University’s Radiation Science and Engineering
Center has been applied to the quantification of both liquid and ice phase water. Quantification results of water and ice
inside a known small channel test object were accurate to within 2%. This capability allows the quantification of ice within
a fuel cell flow field under cold-start conditions.
Authors:M. Koyama, J. Takada, K. Kamiyama, N. Fujii, J. Inoue, K. Issiki, and E. Nakayama
In order minimize the possible contamination during storing and pre-treatment of such pure samples as ice and snow collected in Antarctica, trace elements in experimental tools such as bottles, beakers, tubings and filters were determined by neutron activation analysis. By using well certified tools, ice and snow samples from Antarctica and high mountains in China and in Japan were analyzed. Relative concentrations of volatile elements such as Zn, Cd, As, Sb or Ag to Al or Fe which are major components in the earth crust were found to be 10 to 1000 times higher than in the ordinary soil for the samples from Antarctica and Mt. Naimonanyi in China.
Authors:A. Wyttenbach, R. Rauter, B. Stauffer, and U. Schotterer
An ice-core of 4 m length was drilled at the Jungfraujoch. It was divided into 18 sections and analyzed for solid and dissolved
material by neutron activation analysis using nondestructive counting as well as chemical group separations. The solid material
was identified as stone dust. Part of the dissolved material seems to originate from dissolved limestone, whereas many elements
can not be accounted for by this hypothesis and must be due to atmospheric fallout.