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. Honvári János. (2005): Magyarország IMF-csatlakozásának előtörténete Valóság XLIX. évf. 10, 82–102. Honvári János (2006): XX. századi magyar gazdaságtörténet. Aula Kiadó, Budapest. Honvári János

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Events is Low and There Are Multiple Confounders . American Journal of Epidemiology , 158 ( 3 ): 280 – 287 . Conway , P. ( 1994 ): IMF Lending Programs: Participation

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during the IMF Intervention. Inter-Asia Cultural Studies , 9(1): 82–95. Cho J. The National Crisis and De/reconstructing Nationalism in South Korea during the IMF Intervention

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A cikk az IMF és a Világbank kétévtizedes tevékenységének a magyar gazdaságpolitika alakulására gyakorolt hatását elemzi. Hivatkozási keretét a két nemzetközi pénzügyi intézmény által ellátott négy funkció (elemzés-előrejelzés és gazdaságpolitikai fel­ügyelet, globális szabályozás, hitelnyújtás, technikai segítségnyújtás) és az általuk kiváltott öt azonosított gazdaságpolitikai hatás (gazdaságpolitikai értékelés, gazda­ságpolitikai ajánlás, kemény befolyásolás, puha befolyásolás, keresztbefolyásolás) képezi. A szerző megállapítja, hogy a piacgazdaságra történő átmenet időszakában jelentős volt az IMF és a Világbank befolyásoló szerepe, de lényegesen kisebb a sokak által feltételezettnél. Az IMF befolyásoló hatása - a teljesítménykritériumokhoz kapcsolt hitelnyújtási gyakorlat miatt - elsősorban a kemény befolyásolás és az ún. IV. cikkely konzultációk során tett gazdaságpolitikai ajánlásokon keresztül érvényesült.

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Integration , 36 ( 3 ): 213 – 229 . BBC News ( 2011 ): Hungary Asks for IMF and EU Assistance . BBC Business News . https://www.bbc.com/news/business-15820340

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A closed-form expression is obtained for the conditional probability distribution of ∫t 0 R 2 s ds given R t, where (R s, s ≧ 0) is a Bessel process of dimension δ > 0 started from 0, in terms of parabolic cylinder functions. This is done by inverting the following Laplace transform also known as the generalized Lévy’s stochastic area formula: [exp(λ220tRs2ds)|Rt=a]=(λtsinh(λt))δ/2exp(a22t(λtcoth(λt)1)). We also examine the joint distribution of (R 2 t, ∫t 0 R 2 s ds.

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Intense magnetic storms are dominantly caused by the interplanetary manifestations of fast coronal mass ejections (CMEs); and are in two forms: the sheath region and the CME ejecta itself; both involving an intense and long duration southward interplanetary magnetic field component B z . A study of the storm events which were divided into two parts of ‘intense’ −250 nT ≤ peak D st < −100 nT) and ‘very intense’ (peak D st < −250 nT) magnetic activities, each having four storm days spanning between 1976 and 2002 shows that an appreciable southward turning of B z for a value >10 nT and long duration (>3 hour) would always cause a depression in the D st magnitude, signifying an intense storm. The study reveals that ‘very intense’ storms are more likely to experience shock in the interplanetary magnetic field region faster than ‘intense’ storms with a plasma flow speed >400 km/s. This is because D st plots shows that activity of storm sudden commencement (SSC) is not noticeable until about 7 hours to storm day under ‘intense’ storms, whereas, it is as much as 12 hours to storm day for ‘very intense’ activities.The B z plots also shows that B z southward orientation magnitude on the average for ‘very intense’ storms is not beyond −10 nT before the beginning of geomagnetic activity; with a northward orientation occurring less often with a magnitude less than 10 nT. However, a northward directed B z appears more often before storm event in the case of ‘very intense’ storms with a magnitude that could be as high as 15 nT on the average and a southward orientation value not exceeding −10 nT. It was further observed from the D st plot that ‘intense’ storms recover faster than the ‘very intense’ ones.

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Foreign direct investment and external debt in Hungary

An attempt to examine the macroeconomic capital structure from a new perspective

Society and Economy
Authors: Iván Bélyácz and Mónika Kuti

Faria, André — Mauro, Paolo (2004): Institutions and the External Capital Structure of Countries. IMF Working Paper No. 04/236. Faria, André — Lane, Philip R. — Mauro, Paolo — Milesi-Ferretti, Gian Maria (2007

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. IMF ( 2008 ): Republic of Latvia, “Request for Stand-by Arrangement” . December 19, Washington, D. C. IMF ( 2010 ): Greece: Staff Report on Request for Stand by Arrangemen t. Country Report , No. 10/110 (May

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87 940 971 Berg, A. — Krueger, A. (2003): Trade Growth and Poverty: A Selective Survey. IMF Working Papers , WP/03

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