# Search Results

and compare the characteristics of cited references in the Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology (JASIST), Information Processing and Management (IPM), and Journal of Documentation (JOD), which have been

Integrated pest management (IPM) strategies for the management of sucking insect pests were disseminated in 36 villages of three districts of Punjab during 2008 to 2010. Adoption of IPM strategies led to reduction in the population of jassid, whitefly and mealybug in IPM villages. Mean population of jassid was 0.62 and 1.60 nymphs per three leaves, whitefly 1.11 and 2.53 adults per three leaves and mealybug 0.53 and 1.03 per 2.5 cm of central shoot in IPM and non-IPM villages, respectively. Mean population of spiders, chrysoperla, coccinellids and predatory bugs was 0.65, 0.13, 0.15 and 0.04 in IPM villages and 0.29, 0.09, 0.06 and 0.00 per plant in non-IPM villages, respectively. IPM strategies resulted in the 47.69 and 50.56 per cent reduction in number of spray and cost of spray in IPM villages over non-IPM villages. The average cost of cultivation was Rs. 21324 ha^{−1} in IPM villages, as compared to non-IPM villages (Rs. 23774.67 ha^{−1}). Average seed cotton yield in IPM villages was 2333 kg ha^{−1} in comparison to non-IPM villages (1959.67 kg ha^{−1}) and average net return in IPM villages was Rs. 57194 ha^{−1}, which was Rs. 15709 more than non-IPM villages.

Suppose that K and K' are knots inside the homology spheres Y and Y', respectively. Let X = Y (K, K') be the 3-manifold obtained by splicing the complements of K and K' and Z be the three-manifold obtained by 0 surgery on K. When Y' is an L-space, we use the splicing formula of [1] to show that the rank of ^{2}) = 0 and is bounded below by rank(

We have examined the community structure indices (species richness, dominance, diversity and similarity) of the rove beetles (Staphylinidae) assemblages in three differently treated apple orchards in Hungary.During the survey, a total number of 728 specimens belonging to 73 species were collected with pitfall traps. The dominant species were
*Omalium caesum, Drusilla canaliculata, Dexiogyia corticina, Mocyta orbata*
and
*Styloxys insecatus*
.Out of the differently treated orchards, the staphylinid abundance was the higher in the abandoned than in the conventionally treated and in integrated pest management orchards.The diversity profile of the communities showed that there were no differences between the diversity of the conventionally treated and abandoned orchards, and both were significantly more diverse than the IPM orchard. The similarity indices indicated that the forming dominance of the species was also influenced by the treatment. The distribution of the dominant species in each pitfall trap used in each plot shows the insecticide tolerance of the species

The effectiveness of dimethyl disulfide (DMDS) to control root-knot nematodes (*Meloidogyne* spp.) and weeds was tested for the first time in Hungary in two consecutive protected cucumber crops with application made only before the first crop. The treatments were Accolade EC (DMDS 94.1%) at 400 l/ha applied by driplines, Nemathorin 10 G (fosthiazate) at 30 kg/ha, and an untreated control. During the first cucumber cycle vigour-index, yield, root-gall index, *Meloidogyne* juveniles in the soil and germination of weeds were evaluated. All considered parameters were significantly improved by using DMDS compared respectively to the chemical standard and untreated control: (i) vigour-index of 7.0, 4.3 and 3.6; (ii) cumulative yield/sample of 45.1 kg, 30.9 kg, and 16.6 kg; root-gall index (RGI) of 1.2, 4.9, and 5.9; (iii) *M. incognita* J2/25 g soil of 0.25, 48.5 and 78.0, and (iv) number of weed seedlings/sample in the 20–30 cm soil profile of 1.1, 2.6, and 4.2. During the second cucumber crop, only root-gall index was evaluated. Results showed that a single DMDS treatment applied before the first crop had a prolonged beneficial effect on the following crop. In the second crop cycle, root gall indices were 5.58, 9.18, and 8.44 for DMDS treated plots, chemical control and untreated control, respectively.

## Abstract

*M*be a left

*R*-module. In this paper a generalization of the notion of

*m*-system set of rings to modules is given. Then for a submodule

*N*of

*M*, we define

*m*ε

*M*: every

*m*-system containing

*m*meets

*N*}. It is shown that

*M*containing

*N*. We define rad

_{ R }(

*M*) =

*Baer-McCoy radical*or

*prime radical*of

*M*. It is shown that if

*M*is an Artinian module over a PI-ring (or an FBN-ring)

*R*, then

*M*/rad

_{ R }(

*M*) is a Noetherian

*R*-module. Also, if

*M*is a Noetherian module over a PI-ring (or an FBN-ring)

*R*such that every prime submodule of

*M*is virtually maximal, then

*M*/rad

_{ R }(

*M*) is an Artinian

*R*-module. This yields if

*M*is an Artinian module over a PI-ring

*R*, then either rad

_{ R }(

*M*) =

*M*or rad

_{ R }(

*M*) = ∩

_{ i=1}

^{ n }

*R*. Also, Baer’s lower nilradical of

*M*[denoted by Nil

_{*}(

_{ R }

*M*)] is defined to be the set of all strongly nilpotent elements of

*M*. It is shown that, for any projective

*R*-module

*M*, rad

_{ R }(

*M*) = Nil

_{*}(

_{ R }

*M*) and, for any module

*M*over a left Artinian ring

*R*, rad

_{ R }(

*M*) = Nil

_{*}(

_{ R }

*M*) = Rad(

*M*) = Jac(

*R*)

*M*.

Let 𝑛 ≥ 2 be an integer. The graph

## Abstract

Let *G* be a finite group. We define the prime graph Γ(*G*) as follows. The vertices of Γ(*G*) are the primes dividing the order of *G* and two distinct vertices *p, q* are joined by an edge if there is an element in *G* of order *pq*. Recently M. Hagie [5] determined finite groups *G* satisfying Γ(*G*) = Γ(*S*), where *S* is a sporadic simple group. Let *p* > 3 be a prime number. In this paper we determine finite groups *G* such that Γ(*G*) = Γ(*PSL*(2, *p*)). As a consequence of our results we prove that if *p* > 11 is a prime number and *p* ≢ 1 (mod 12), then *PSL*(2, *p*) is uniquely determined by its prime graph and so these groups are characterizable by their prime graph.

## Abstract

We study the hyperspace *K*
_{0}(*X*) of non-empty compact subsets of a Smyth-complete quasi-metric space (*X, d*). We show that *K*
_{0}(*X*), equipped with the Hausdorff quasi-pseudometric *H*
_{
d
} forms a (sequentially) Yoneda-complete space. Moreover, if *d* is a *T*
_{1} quasi-metric, then the hyperspace is algebraic, and the set of all finite subsets forms a base for it. Finally, we prove
that *K*
_{0}(*X*), *H*
_{
d
}) is Smyth-complete if (*X, d*) is Smyth-complete and all compact subsets of *X* are *d*
^{−1}-precompact.

## Abstract

As the main result, we show that if *G* is a finite group such that Γ(*G*) = Γ(^{2}
*F*
_{4}(*q*)), where *q* = 2^{2m+1} for some *m* ≧ 1, then *G* has a unique nonabelian composition factor isomorphic to ^{2}
*F*
_{4}(*q*). We also show that if *G* is a finite group satisfying |*G*| =|^{2}
*F*
_{4}(*q*)| and Γ(*G*) = Γ(^{2}
*F*
_{4}(*q*)), then *G* ≅ ^{2}
*F*
_{4}(*q*). As a consequence of our result we give a new proof for a conjecture of W. Shi and J. Bi for ^{2}
*F*
_{4}(*q*).