Authors:G. Klausz, Andrea Tiszai, Zsuzsa Lénárt, Zsófia Gyulai, L. Tiszlavicz, Márta Hőgye, M. Csanády, J. Lonovics, and Yvette Mándi
The interaction between the bacteria and the host is a key factor determining the clinical consequences of H. pylori infection. The immune system plays an important role in either promoting or preventing the disease. The mucosal production of TNF-a, IL-6, IL-8 and IL-10 and the CagA status were investigated in H. pylori-positive patients with duodenal ulcer (DU). The concentrations of these cytokines in gastric antral mucosal specimens from patients infected with H. pylori (n = 40) were determined by ELISA and compared with data on mucosal specimens from H. pylori-negative patients (n = 12). The local TNF-a, IL-6 and IL-8 concentrations in the antral biopsy samples were significantly higher (p < 0.001) in the patients infected with H. pylori than in the samples from the H. pylori-negative subjects. CagA positivity was demonstrated in 39 (97.5%) of the 40 patients with DU, and in 41 (70.7%) of H. pylori-positive (58 of 100) healthy blood donors. In complementary studies focusing on extragastric disease, it was found that 57% of patients with ischaemic heart disease were seropositive as concerns H. pylori, and 91% of them had antibodies against human heat shock protein 60, too. This study suggests that, besides the bacterial virulence factor, the host response of an increased mucosal production of inflammatory cytokines can be relevant to the gastric pathophysiology in H. pylori-induced DU. At the same time, in ischaemic heart diseases the role of autoimmune processes induced by H. pylori cannot be excluded.
Authors:J. Baptista, D. Vieira, A. Galisteo Júnior, O. Higa, M. Casare, C. Yonamine, P. Caproni, L. Campos, H. de Andrade Júnior, P. Spencer, and N. Nascimento
In this work, the authors investigated the immunological behavior of bothropstoxin-I (BTHX-1), before and after irradiation
process, and also the influence of scavengers substances on protein alterations induced by free radical production. Structural
modifications were investigated by SDS-PAGE in reducing or non-reducing conditions. In vitro cytotoxicity assay was performed
to test average toxic activities of BTHX-I. BALB/c Isogenic mice were immunized with irradiated or non-irradiated (native)
forms of BTHX-I and antibody titers and isotypes were determined by ELISA method. Expression of murine cytokines was analyzed
by using expression data obtained by quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) assays. The results indicate that irradiation of proteins
leads to significant structural modifications, and also changes the cytokines profile during immunization process, regarding
a suitable approach to new immunogenic production.
Authors:B. Mickowska, P. Socha, D. Urminská, and E. Cieślik
Prolamins are alcohol-soluble fraction of cereal proteins involved in immunological response of patients with celiac disease. The aim of this study was to analyse the similar protein complex of selected varieties of cereal, pseudocereal and legume grains by comparison of protein fractions, amino acids composition and SDS-PAGE electrophoresis. The immunoreactivity was tested by Western blot and ELISA methods. ELISA analysis recognizes celiac active epitopes in wheat gliadin (which is reference protein in determination of celiac activity), and also corresponding epitopes in other grain proteins responsible for immunological response of patients with celiac disease. Estimated quantity of celiac active sequences (calculated as gliadin content) below 20 ppm was found in species of amaranth, buckwheat and millet, as well as rice, maize, chickpea and chickling vetch. Immunological reaction with polyclonal antibody was negative for all crops, except oat, maize, millet and foxtail millet.
It is proposed that hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) and myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) may be temporally distinct phases of pathophysiologically related disease processes. A significant subgroup of MDS may develop from subclinical HLH. In that case, HLH-like disease would chronically proceed with little disease activity or under occasional flares only, until it first becomes clinically apparent at the MDS stage. At the MDS stage, however, HLH activity may be easily overlooked by histological or cytogenetic means, since hemophagocytosis has fallen already largely silent. Current treatment options for HLH, like high-dose intravenous immunoglobulins (IVIG), may turn out to be helpful in MDS patients as well.In rare and extreme cases, Leptospira infection causes severe and life-threatening HLH. Thus, this proposal also implies that an insufficient, dysfunctional or misdirected immunological response to Leptospira infection may lead to MDS in the long run in a significant number of cases, which have not been recognized as Leptospira-triggered events in the first place. Infections by agents other than Leptospira may lead to subclinical HLH-like disease with MDS as a late stage as well.
Authors:Joanna Klećkowska-Nawrot, Aleksandra Chęć, Karolina Goździewska-Harłajczuk, Renata Nowaczyk, and Karolina Barszcz
The Harderian gland (HG) in birds is the dominant orbital gland, which plays an important role in immunological response. Tissue sections taken from adult females of Bilgorajska goose were stained with hematoxylin-eosin, Azan, PAS, AB pH 2.5, AF and HDI. Based on the histological structure the HG in Bilgorajska geese had compound tubular structure with multiple lobules and two types of epithelial cells lining the tubules. Epithelial cells in the central part of the lobes were dark in color and contained serous fluid, while in the deeper layers, epithelial cells were lightly coloured and contained mucous fluid. Histochemical studies showed the presence of neutral mucopolysaccharides and carboxylated acid mucopolysaccharides in the secretory cells. The small number of single plasma cells were present in HDI staining below the basement membrane of the secondary and primary ducts, near the crypts of the main duct. TEM study demonstrated that plasma cells had a large nucleus with condensed heterochromatin and were rich in rough endoplasmic reticulum. The knowledge of gland’s structure, and above all an analysis of the immune system components may affect clinical practice and properly conducted immunization of birds.
Authors:R. E. Bundy, B. Falusi, and Nandor Marczin
Thiopental (TP) along with being an intravenous anaesthetic is frequently used in high doses to treat increased intracranial hypertension. Long-term treatments result in its accumulation in the lungs and an increased incidence of nosocomial infections. Since TP has been shown to modulate TNF-induced inflammatory pathways in lymphocytes, we hypothesised that TP may modulate pro-inflammatory events in human pulmonary epithelial cells. We investigated the potential influence of TP on MAPK and NF-κB signal transduction pathways in the absence and presence of TNF. TP at 1 mg/ml concentrations produced a 10-fold increase in p38 activation as assessed by Western blotting using monoclonal antibodies specific for double phosphorylated, thereby activated form of p38. This increase in p38 MAPK phosphorylation was evident as early as 10 minutes (4.5-fold), peaked at 60 minutes (11.3-fold) with return towards baseline (3.6-fold) in 2 hours. This response was specific for p38, since there was no evidence for activation of NF-κB pathway by TP as judged from Western blot analysis of steady-state IκB levels. TNF activated both p38 (2.4–11.4-fold increases) and depleted IκB (64–35% of control) in a concentration dependent manner (0.1–10 ng/ml). Interestingly, in the presence of TP, TNF did not produce a further increase in p38 activation. In addition, TP tended to attenuate TNF-induced NF-κB activation. These data suggest that high dose TP has the capacity to specifically alter p38MAPK activation and to modulate TNF signalling in epithelial cells, which might have implications to immunological responses in the lung.