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Abstract

Slovakia is heir of everything, what left its tracks on the territory. It is heir of art, which has not only Slavic-Slovak, but also German–Austrian–Hungarian origins, with Franco-Roman touch. It was suppressed or underlined by catholic–protestant–Jewish–orthodox (but also free-thinking and free-mason) traditions. It is out of doubt that Slovaks do not exist from the world's beginning, but that they have become Slovaks and everything, that had a significant value for them, could be national. A crucial role played the national identity; but in most cases, this cannot be traced back. Therefore, it has only a limited role within history of art. The study speak for overcoming the very national-defensive character of the historiographies and focusing on more interesting matters.

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Abstract

In the midst of an increasingly global culture it is necessary to construct a local narrative because nobody else but local scholars will construct it. If, for example, the history of Hungarian Modernism is described in the terms of the West European artistic currents only, as a journey from realism to impressionism and post-impressionism to art nouveau to symbolism to expressionism, cubism, constructivism and so forth, as we have been doing it for decades, some of the most significant Hungarian artists are remaining unacknowledged. There is hardly any international category for Egry, Vajda, Farkas, Kondor or Veszelszky, to mention but a few names; but even those Hungarian artists who more or less fit into the above stylistic brackets are getting a simplified reading and understanding. It is the collective task of local art historians to construct their distinctive narrative.

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Absztrakt

Ebbinghaus óta számos kísérletet végezetek szavakkal és értelmetlen szótagokkal a szabad felidézés vizsgálatára. Ilyenkor a 20–40 itemből álló készletet egyszer, leginkább egyenként bemutatják a kísérleti személyeknek, majd a személyek felidézik az itemeket szabad sorrendben, azaz úgy, ahogy az eszükbe jutnak. Minél több itemet felidéznek, annál sikeresebb a szabad felidézéses kísérlet. Érdekes módon eddig senki sem próbálkozott festmények szabad felidézésével. Farkas 2001-ben megjelent kísérlete kivételével nincsenek ide vonatkozó adatok.

Kísérletünkben 52 egyetemista részére mutattunk be 60 festményt egyenként, 10–10 festmény egy-egy festészeti stílust reprezentált. A festészeti stílusok a következők voltak: reneszánsz, klasszicista, romantikus, realista, impresszionista, szürrealista. Az egyes festmények random sorrendben jelenek meg egy projektor kivetítőjén. Arra voltunk kíváncsiak, van-e szignifikáns sorrend az egyes stílushoz tartozó képek felidézési gyakoriságában. A gyakoriságok csökkenő sorrendben a következő stílusoknál adódtak: szürrealista, impresszionista, romantikus, reneszánsz, klasszicista és realista. A dolgozatban elemezzük a sorrend feltehető okait.

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Gyula Krúdy (1878-1933) produced the main bulk of his fictional work in the period 1897-1920, when Modernist writing in Hungary was initially dominated by the short story as the medium of experiment and innovation. The basic form of his prodigious output was, similarly to a number of other important prose authors of the period, the short story. His highly influential work has an elusive quality: it is unclassifiable, and general critical labels such as Symbolism, Impressionism and Surrealism have been of partial and dubious help in discussions of his writing. Approached from a technical point of view, the underlying narrative strategy of Krúdy's work can be identified as serial accumulation, with its attendant openness of form: the short-story sequence, the story-tagged-on-the-previous-story organisation of his novels, the historically pre-novelistic frame-tale-like coordination of various narrative forms. This is particularly evident in the case of Szindbád, Krúdy's crowning achievement in fiction, which came into being as an ever expanding series of short stories, novels and “dreams”, held together by their protagonist, the symbolically reimagined figure of Sindbad the Sailor, the mythic wanderer of The Arabian Nights. Infused with the lyricism of conjugal Eros and Thanatos, the stories develop, and give variations on, the central character as a composite symbol, the manifold meanings of which range from authorial self-dramatisation to a philosophical vision of Man as metaphysical superfluity.

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Summary

László Mednyánszky's work is investigated in the present study in the context of Austrian “Stimmungsimpressio-nismus”, an artistic phenomenon, which corresponds in contemporary Hungarian art criticism to “Stimmungmalerei”(painting of sentiments, proposed 1886 by G. Keleti). The cult of French Impressionism has overshadowed in the art history of Central Europe a late 19th-century school of nature representation, based on sentiments and considered later as a provincial phenomenon. László Mednyánszky's paintings can be compared with the main representants of Austrian “Stimmungsimpressionismus”, and in fact he had contacts with painters as Emil Jakob Schindler, Robert Russ, Hans Canon, Wilhelm Bernatzik and Tina Blau. Inspite of his very deep knowledge about impressionist painting, he was mainly influenced by Barbizon painters, and in the first line by J. F. Millet. In the second part of the study figurative paintings by Mednyászky, representing poor people, are analyzed. Their relationship to the tradition of Ribera, Daumier, Géricault and mainly of Millet corresponds to a literary inspiration due mainly to the famous roman Les mystères de Paris by Eugène Sue. The great influence of this kind of literature is witnessed by friends of Mednyánszky.

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There is still much to be explored about the exact circumstances of the creation of Csontváry’s pictures and the painter’s working method. Research has either approached the oeuvre from the life path wrought with mythical elements, or wished to embed it in the context of 19th century painting tradition. From these angles, however, the consistently built visual logic of Csontváry’s pictures, their details governed by the inherent laws of the genre of painting are often overlooked.

The most adequate method of exploring Csontváry’s creative practice appears to be a thorough examination of the relation between the inspiring sight and the picture painted of it. I based this study on Csontváry’s landscapes painted between 1897 and 1905, first of all those painted in Trogir, Castellammare and Taormina. In the knowledge of these localities it can be established that the painter accurately followed the topographic sight and the conditions of light. At the same time, the comparison of the location and the painting has also revealed that the painter had pairs of pictures in mind in his intention to capture a sight systematically. Taking up a vantage point mostly in northsouth and one in east-west orientation, he created “panorama pictures” built of several elements. His paintings are similar to the 360° panoramas in photography. But while a rotating camera can take an infinite number of photos, the painter assembled the picture from two “shots”.

Conspicuously, the pairs of pictures depict different times of day: instead of momentary impressions and moods, Csontváry captured the path of the transmission of light and thereby the passing of time, an interval of time in the pairs of pictures. In his later compositions he was to apply these different light conditions in a single picture, framing as it were the daily path of the planet on the horizon. This practice is related to one of Csontváry’s key technical terms, the “Sun Path”.

By capturing the changing of light in one picture Csontváry wished to “perfect” the 19th century plein air technique. His “Sun Path” painting derives from a specific view of nature and the world, which was in polar opposition to the positivism of naturalism and the sensualism of impressionism. Proof of it is the pairs of pictures. They summarize all Csontváry’s observations of time and space, and their translation into the practice of painting.

The views conveyed by Csontváry’s paintings were often borrowed from contemporaneous picture postcards. Not only greeting cards but e.g. the rich moving picture and photo material of the programs of the Urania Hungarian Scientific Theatre inspired him. He treated the pictorial themes as visual tropes or conventions, but in the creative process he only used their fixed, symbolic form such as a typical cutting. When a theme was actually to be realized, he thought it indispensable to be on the site in person, to make sketches and paint on the spot. He did so to make the contents he found important in the symbol visible by his painting.

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heritage for us. From the second half of the 19th century, a new style, impressionism emerged. This style was considered shocking, revolutionary, and radical. Brushstrokes were quick and spontaneous, thick, and usually coarse. Instead of religious

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10th 2018 in Zagreb. In the Music Week for the Youth (Tjedan glazbe za mlade) at the Concert Hall Vatroslav Lisinski, the Zagreb Philharmonic Orchestra held the concert titled: “Impressionism in Music”. The three parties participating in the

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