Both Indian mustard and sunflower were grown in a hydroponic solution treated with different concentration activities of 134Cs or with different amounts of copper or with both in order to investigate the interaction between copper and radiocesium. It was found that 134Cs activity concentration applied in the nutrient solution exerted more influence on the uptake and translocation of copper by Indian mustard than by sunflower. Indian mustard grown in hydroponic solution containing certain levels of copper and being treated with higher 134Cs activity concentration showed higher uptake of copper than sunflower. However, in the case of root copper concentrations, sunflower showed significantly higher copper immobilization by roots than Indian mustard. It was also found that the presence of copper in the hydroponic solution did modify radiocesium uptake by both species. The application of 1 mg/l in the growth medium could greatly increase the uptake of 134Cs by both species. With 3 mg/l concentration of copper amended to the solution, the accumulation of 134Cs by both species was decreased compared to the 1 mg/l copper treatment. These lines of evidence show that there is stronger interaction between copper and radiocesium in Indian mustard than in sunflower during the root uptake through nutrient solution.
A pot experiment was performed as factorial based on randomized complete block design with three replications, to assess the effects of 1 mM spermidine (SPD) and 1 mM putrescine (PUT) on Indian mustard (Brassica Juncea L.) under different levels of watering (100, 75, 50 and 25% of field capacity). Chlorophyll a and b contents decreased, but the ratio of Chl a/b and carotenoid content increased with decreasing water supply. Foliar sprays of polyamines improved chlorophylls a and b and carotenoid contents, while the ratio of Chl a/b was reduced by these growth regulators. Relative water content, glycine betaine, proteins and soluble sugars contents were increased, but proline content was decreased by exogenous polyamines under limited water supply. Antioxidant enzyme (POX, CAT, SOD and APX) activities were enhanced by drought stress and polyamine treatments. This resulted in lower electrolyte leakage and lipid peroxidation (less MDA) under stressful conditions. The present results indicate that exogenous polyamines such as putrescine and spermidine can alleviate some of the deleterious impacts of water limitation on Indian mustard.
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Enhancement of cadmium and nickel