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Abstract  

Coal fly ash, a waste generated at the Figueira coal-fired electric power plant located in Brazil, was used to synthesize zeolite by hydrothermal treatment with NaOH solution at 100 °C for 24 h. The fly ash (FA) and this synthesized zeolite (ZM) that was characterized predominantly as hydroxy-sodalite were used as adsorbents for anionic dye indigo carmine from aqueous solutions. The samples were analyzed by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) for the determination of As, Co, Fe, La, Mo, Na, Sb, Sc, Sm, Th, U and Zn. Effects of contact time and initial dye concentration were evaluated in the adsorption processes. The kinetics studies indicated that the adsorption followed the pseudo-second order kinetics and that surface adsorption and intraparticle diffusion were involved in the adsorption mechanism for both the adsorbents. The Langmuir isotherm model provided the best correlation of the experimental data. The maximum adsorption capacity was found to be 1.48 mg L−1 for FA and 1.23 mg L−1 for ZM. Laboratory leaching and solubilization tests conducted to classify this ZM as if was a waste residue according to the Brazilian regulation classified it as a residue non-hazardous and non-inert.

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Singlet oxygen ( 1 O 2 )-catalyzed oxidation of water leads to a variety of oxidants (e.g. ozone, O 3 ) in host-parasite relationships as well. It can be detected indirectly in TLC or OPLC zones by use of the simple BioArena system and O 3 -eliminating molecules (e.g. d -limonene and indigo carmine) in the culture medium. It follows from these new findings that not only formaldehyde but also O 3 and related bioreactive compounds may play a crucial role in the mechanism of antibacterial activity of antibiotic-like compounds. The toxic potential of a molecule, however, originates from the ratio of the oxidants produced in the chromatographic spots.

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Green chemistry approach for the synthesis of PbSnO3

An effective photocatalyst for the degradation of dyes under sunlight

Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry
Authors: A. V. Borhade and Y. R. Baste

photocatalyst by eco-friendly solid state mechanochemical synthesis method and its application for degradation of Methyl blue (MB), Indigo carmine (IC), and Acid violet (AV) dyes in the presence of sunlight. Experimental

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Reaction Kinetics, Mechanisms and Catalysis
Authors: A. Martínez-de la Cruz, D. B. Hernández-Uresti, Leticia M. Torres-Martínez and S. W. Lee

parameters as temperature, time, pH solution, concentration, and stirring conditions. The photocatalytic activity of the material synthesized by hydrothermal reaction was evaluated in the degradation reactions of rhodamine B (rhB, CAS 81-88-9), indigo carmine

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. J Univ Chem Technol Metall 41 2 205 – 210 . 15. Massoumi , A , Tavallali , H 1998 Kinetic spectrophotometric determination of vanadium by catalytic effect on the indigo carmine

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TLC methods have been developed for analysis of food pigments, sweeteners, and a preservative. Patent blue V, quinoline yellow, brilliant blue FCF, tartrazine, azorubine, ponceau 4R, curcumine, indigo carmine, cochineal, methyl violet, mixed carotenes, plain caramel, erythrosine B, and orange yellow S were separated on silica gel G with isopropanol-(12.5%) aqueous ammonia, 10 + 2 ( v/v ), as mobile phase. Aspartame, acesulfame K, sodium cyclamine, and benzoic acid were separated on thin layers of silica gel G with ethanol-isopropanol-(12.5%) aqueous ammonia, 10 + 40 + 1 ( v/v ), as mobile phase. These chromatographic systems were applied to the analysis of food additives in 23 sparkling and non-sparkling drinks.

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Abstract  

The molybdate β-Bi2Mo2O9 synthesised by solid state reaction showed photocatalytic activity for the degradation of rhodamine B (rhB), indigo carmine (IC) and alizarin red S (ARS) through a photosensitization process of the organic dye. The activity of β-Bi2Mo2O9 to the degradation of organic dyes was compared with the corresponding γ-Bi2MoO6 phase. It was found that activities exhibited by β-Bi2Mo2O9 were four times higher than that obtained by γ-Bi2MoO6. The extent of mineralization was determined by means of total organic carbon (TOC) measurements, which showed a satisfactory TOC reduction (40%, within 50 h) for rhB.

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The accumulation of hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) is an early and crucial step in paclitaxel-induced cancer cell death before commitment of the cells to apoptosis. In these intracellular events formaldehyde (HCHO) as endogenous, indispensable component may be present mainly as hydroxymethyl groups and so there is a possibility of its endogenous interaction with H 2 O 2 in which singlet oxygen ( 1 O 2 ) and excited HCHO (H*CHO) can be formed. 1 O 2 can interact with H 2 O molecules and in this interaction dihydrogen trioxide (H 2 O 3 ) is formed. The disproportion of this molecule — among others — results in ozone (O 3 ). It is supposed that this reaction series is also valid for the conditions in layer chromatographic spots after inoculation. Results with paclitaxel support this idea. Using BioArena as a complex bioautographic system the HCHO molecules could be captured with well-known endogenous HCHO capture molecules (l -arginine, glutathione) in the spots of paclitaxel on the TLC/OPLC adsorbent layer after inoculation. Capture of HCHO resulted in a dose-dependent decrease of the antibacterial activity of paclitaxel. The antibacterial activity of paclitaxel in the chromatographic spots can be increased dramatically by using Cu(II) ions as HCHO-mobilizing and carrier ions in the culture medium. The HCHO molecule can N -hydroxymethylate the C3’ amide of paclitaxel. By applying an O 3 scavenger (e.g. indigo carmine) this oxidant, as a key reaction product of HCHO, could be detected indirectly in chromatographic spots of paclitaxel. It seems that these small molecules — from HCHO to endogenous O 3 — may be crucial factors of the mechanism of antiproliferative action of the paclitaxel including killing of bystander cancer cells also. It seems that the basic molecule (paclitaxel) does not have a direct effect on the bacterial cells; its induction of the formation of H 2 O 2 molecules (and indirectly HCHO molecules) may, however, be resulting in this complicated process.

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, Moura , AO , Costa , LL . Nb 2 O 5 as efficient and recyclable photocatalyst for indigo carmine degradation . Appl Catal B . 2008 ; 82 : 219 – 224 . 10.1016/j.apcatb.2008.01.024 . 2

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Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry
Authors: Alexandre Prado, Aline Moura, Rômulo Andrade, Igor Pescara, Valéria Ferreira, Elaine Faria, Augusto de Oliveira, Esmeralda Okino and Luiz Zara

Jacintho GVM . Interaction of indigo carmine dye with silica modified with humic acids at solid/liquid interface . Surf Sci. 2003 ; 542 : 276 – 82 http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0039-6028(03)00990-7 . 4

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