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, denoted hereafter as Δ L ( t ), of individual authors (Sangwal 2011a ), the cumulative growth of N ( t ) articles, in three randomly selected databases in humanities, social sciences and science and technology (Sangwal 2011b ) and the cumulative growth

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and (ii) identifying the precise author of each publication, particularly because of homonyms among names (Aksnes 2008 ) and variations in the way individual authors provide their names. This is why, until recently, remote bibliometric evaluations of

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. For example, one may assume that all authors of a paper are assigned equal weights. This assumption can be applied when the extent of contributions of individual authors of the paper are approximately equal. In case, the authors have not contributed

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Abstract  

Methodological implications of four accounting procedures applied in multiple authorship treatment relating to author productivity distribution were investigated. The emphasis was given to the individual author rank and inequality pattern of data. It was found that similar pattern of inequality holds in three of the four analysed cases, in spite of the fact that significant changes were observed on the individual level. By introducing the concept of dual approach a plausible interpretation of that phenomenon was obtained.

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Abstract  

Hirsch’s h-index gives a single number that in some sense summarizes an author’s research output and its impact. Since an individual author’s h-index will be time-dependent, we propose instead the h-rate which, according to theory, is (almost) constant. We re-analyse a previously published data set (Liang, 2006) which, although not of the precise form to properly test our model, reveals that in many cases we do not have a constant h-rate. On the other hand this then suggests ways in which deeper scientometric investigations could be carried out. This work should be viewed as complementary to that of Liang (2006).

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The presence of war elephants in the Near East between the late third and early seventh centuries, and especially in Romano-Sasanian conflicts, is frequently reported in a wide variety of contemporary sources. The purpose of this paper is to examine the evidence for the military use of elephants over this period. This study gives particular attention to the literary concerns of individual authors, whether writing in Latin, Greek, Armenian, or Arabic, which might have influenced their inclusion of vivid depictions of war elephants. Informed by comparative evidence from Indian sources, this assessment also identifies a more diverse range of military applications and capabilities of elephants than in the 'classic' age of elephant warfare in the Hellenistic period.

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The paper discusses the Gul u Navrūz romance cycle, presenting its reception history in Čaġatay and Ottoman literature. Comparing the elaborations of this picaresque mystical love story, it tries to understand (1) what might have appealed to poets to write their own version of it, (2) how the story found its way from Persian into the Čaġatay and Ottoman Turkish literary canon, (3) how it disappeared from court literature, to resurface in East Anatolian folk literature, and (4) what the aesthetic concepts of the individual authors were and how they differed from one another. Also elaborated is the interrelation of Persian and Turkish literature on the one hand, and of Ottoman and Timurid literature on the other.

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This paper investigates two bibliometric problems: the listing of books in a specialist area (ornithology) and the determination of the citation pattern to individual authors, who often re-issue their books in later editions. James Bond, a Philadelphia ornithologist, who specialised in the birds of the West Indies, is used as an example of a naturalist whose long career led to many journal articles and enduring scientific fame through a well-known book. He also attained some unexpected notoriety through the use of his name by a popular novelist. Methods for the evaluation of his book and associated bird checklists in comparison with other similar works are presented on the basis of their citations

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The intellectual and artistic culture of the Dual Monarchy was marked by a diversity and richness that was inseparable from the multi-ethnic and multilingual nature of the Habsburg territories. As attempts to integrate the variety of cultural products of the Monarchy into a coherent identity run the risk of oversimplification, the following article offers a discussion of the works of several individual authors, artists, composers, philosophers, and scientists, locating these works within often divergent intellectual and artistic trends the broad range of which may be the single most conspicuous feature of the cultural identity of the Habsburg Empire. It presents the legacy of the Dual Monarchy as one rich in diverse contributions to the cultures of Europe and the world.

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The definition of noun, adjective, verb and adverb currently does not find a general agreement in the scope of Hispanic linguistics. There have been many definitions with various different criteria. Thus, morphological, lexical, syntactic and even logical arguments have been used. Such diversity in the use of criteria is translated in an accumulation of definitions that vary from author to author and which results in the cataloguing of noun, adjective, verb and adverb representatives based on currents or on individual authors. Since, as it seems to be generally recognised, examples of each of the groups exist in more than one language it seems advisable to try to establish definitions that leave apart the particularities of each language and gather the essence of the noun, adjective, verb and adverb beings. The location of representatives of each of these categories and the description of the schemes in which they materialized will correspond to the scope of each language (that is, the determination of the idiomatic categories in each language). We present here a classification of these idiomatic categories applied to Spanish.

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