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can be significantly affected by the presence of papers with different types of durability within their publication profiles. Our target is to analyze to what extent individual scientists produce papers with different types of durability, and how these

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Abstract  

This paper investigates the utility of the Inclusion Index, the Jaccard Index and the Cosine Index for calculating similarities of documents, as used for mapping science and technology. It is shown that, provided that the same content is searched across various documents, the Inclusion Index generally delivers more exact results, in particular when computing the degree of similarity based on citation data. In addition, various methodologies such as co-word analysis, Subject-Action-Object (SAO) structures, bibliographic coupling, co-citation analysis, and self-citation links are compared. We find that the two former ones tend to describe rather semantic similarities that differ from knowledge flows as expressed by the citation-based methodologies.

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This paper focuses on the study of self-citations at the meso and micro (individual) levels, on the basis of an analysis of the production (1994–2004) of individual researchers working at the Spanish CSIC in the areas of Biology and Biomedicine and Material Sciences. Two different types of self-citations are described: author self-citations (citations received from the author him/herself) and co-author self-citations (citations received from the researchers’ co-authors but without his/her participation). Self-citations do not play a decisive role in the high citation scores of documents either at the individual or at the meso level, which are mainly due to external citations. At micro-level, the percentage of self-citations does not change by professional rank or age, but differences in the relative weight of author and co-author self-citations have been found. The percentage of co-author self-citations tends to decrease with age and professional rank while the percentage of author self-citations shows the opposite trend. Suppressing author self-citations from citation counts to prevent overblown self-citation practices may result in a higher reduction of citation numbers of old scientists and, particularly, of those in the highest categories. Author and co-author self-citations provide valuable information on the scientific communication process, but external citations are the most relevant for evaluative purposes. As a final recommendation, studies considering self-citations at the individual level should make clear whether author or total self-citations are used as these can affect researchers differently.

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at a still deeper level of detail, with the unit of observation being the individual scientist. It is thus possible to understand who contributes, and how much, to the performance variation of a given SDS over consecutive time periods

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This work takes inspiration from the question: is it possible to measure the performance of an individual scientist “A” active in a field “J” and compare it to the one of a scientist “B” active in a field “K”? Describing the application of

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” rule is followed at all levels of decision-making. If this does not occur, then the objective of stimulating greater efficiency may not be reached, since there will be insufficient incentives at the level of individual scientists. This becomes more

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generalized properties of the whole studied system, often treating it in continuous approximation without considering differences between individual scientists. Such models were quickly followed by computer simulations. These can incorporate some individual

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Introduction Evaluating the scientific output of individual scientists is a relevant problem, with important consequences for academics or scientists seeking promotion, tenure, faculty positions, research grants etc. (Van Raan

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production of new knowledge or the determinants of their scientific performance. Interesting examples of this use of bibliometric indicators are the so-called “bibliometric portraits”, which pursue the bibliometric characterisation of individual scientists

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Abstract

This paper presents qualitative philosophical, sociological, and historical arguments in favor of collaborative research having greater epistemic authority than research performed by individual scientists alone. Quantitatively, epistemic authority is predicted to correlate with citations, both in number, probability of citation, and length of citation history. Data from a preliminary longitudinal study of 33 researchers supports the predicted effects, and, despite the fallacy of asserting the consequent, is taken to confirm the hypothesis that collaborative research does in fact have greater epistemic authority.

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