Results of several IAEA intercomparison runs organized over the last 8 years are analyzed from the point of view of contribution
and performance of NAA as compared to other techniques. It is shown that NAA is the method of good accuracy and precision
providing on average greater share of results than any other single analytical technique. The prominent position of NAA among
other methods used in trace analyses seems to be firmly established and there are no signs that there might be any change
of the trend in the nearest future.
Results of recent IAEA activities related to assembly, maintenance and verification of databases of relevance to radiochemistry are presented. These include: (1) integral and differential nuclear constants for prompt gamma neutron activation analysis; (2) excitation functions for cyclotron production of medical radioisotopes using proton, deuteron and alpha particle projectiles; (3) data for dose calculations in radiation medical treatment/diagnosis and (4) nuclear cross section standards.
In human nutrition research, nuclear analytical techniques, particularly neutron activation analysis (NAA), are used mainly for thein vitro study of trace elements. According to work sponsored by the IAEA, up to 15 trace elements and 5 minor elements of nutritional interest may be determined in biological materials by NAA with good accuracy and precision. A programme is described in which NAA was used for the determination of 14 trace elements and one minor element in human milk. NAA also plays an important role in the certification of reference materials for nutritional studies.
The G-1 intercomparison is one of the first undertakings of the International Atomic Energy Agency for the investigation of the performance of the routinely used evaluating programs for gamma ray spectra of semiconductor detectors. The details and the conclusions of this procedure are presented.
Authors:L. Araguas, P. Danesi, K. Froehlich, and K. Rozanski
The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), in cooperation with World Meteorological Organization (WMO) initiated in 1960 a world-wide survey of the isotope composition of monthly precipitation. The paper reviews the global distribution patterns of tritium and stable isotopes in precipitation and their relation to meteorological and climatic variables.
An International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Conference series on neutron activation analysis (NAA) in life sciences has been compared to another IAEA conference series and to two other conference series. No great differences in multiple attendees, speakers, chairmen, or diversity of session subjects was seen. The NAA meetings do appear to be less formalized than the others.
Authors:M. Wasim, A. Rahman, S. Waheed, M. Daud, and S. Ahmad
Air particulate matter (PM) was collected in two size fractions using stacked filter units (SFUs) provided by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) from the industrial area of Islamabad. Nucleopore polycarbonate filters were used for collecting from Oct 98 to Jun 99 the particulate matter in coarse and fine size fractions. The samples were characterized by the instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). About 33 elements were quantified using different irradiation and counting protocols.
Authors:W. Cunningham, D. Anderson, W. Lamont, P. South, M. Rury, G. Beachley, and J. Ondov
Transportable radioanalytical systems were assembled and tested for quantitative determination of γ-emitting radionuclides
and screening of β-emitting radionuclides. Standard operating procedures (SOPs), including instructions for assembly, disassembly,
operation, sample collection and analysis, and all other procedures needed, were developed. Foods, as well as National Institute
of Standards and Technology, International Atomic Energy Agency, and in-house Reference Materials were analyzed. An SOP for
γ-emitting radionuclides was successfully tested at 3 locations.
Authors:T. Braun, P. Bull, J. Fardy, I. Haiduc, F. Macasek, W. McDowell, N. Misak, J. Navratil, and T. Sato
Some recent developments in separation techniques with applications to nuclear analytical methods are summarised. The projects discussed are part of an International Atomic Energy Agency Coordinated Research Programme and cover both fundamental studies of the mechanism of various separation processes, and practical applications of novel radiochemical procedures. The processes include methods of sorption, ion exchange and solvent extraction. Applications to neutron activation analysis, photon electron rejecting alpha liquid scintillation spectrometry and X-ray fluorescence spectrometry are described.
Domestically produced diagnostic cold kits, viz. glucoheptonate (GH), diisopropyliminodiacetic acid (DISIDA), dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA), diethylenetriamine-pentaacetic acid (DTPA), methylenediphosphonate (MDP) and Sn-colloid were labeled with99mTc and their in-vivo distribution in experimental animals (rats) was evaluated prior to use in humans for diagnostic scanning. The biodistribution pattern was found in accordance with the latest guidelines of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), which serve as a standard for small scale producers.