, irrespective of whether they were written by 2, 3, or 4 or more authors. Thus, the increase in internationalcollaboration remains even after stratification by the number of authors. Interestingly, the log number of single-author papers exhibits accelerated
the world (King 2004 ). Studies on collaboration relating to the developing countries of the world, especially for countries in Asia, have been infrequent. So, it is interesting to compare China with USA and Japan on internationalcollaboration
citations (Figg et al. 2006 ).
One aspect of multi-authorship is internationalcollaboration. Internationalcollaboration increases visibility, but does it also increase the impact of papers as measured by the number of citations? In consideration
all fields at practically all aggregation levels (Glänzel 2001 ; Persson et al. 2004 ). The volume of internationalcollaboration increased between 1996 and 2005 significantly across all countries and disciplines (30% for France, 50% UK, >100% China
Summary This paper investigates Korean scientific output, focusing on international collaboration patterns, through an analysis of journal publications. For the study, 44,534 publications, published by researchers affiliated with Korean institutions and indexed by SCI during the six years 1995-2000, were considered. The study period was divided into two periods to compare the international collaboration for three years 1995-1997 and 1998-2000. The results show a clear decrease in Korea's international collaboration level between the study periods even though the number of researchers as well as the total R&D expenditure decreased considerably after Korea's economic change. The decrease of international collaboration in Korean science was inversely associated with different determinants such as scientific size as well as national scientific infrastructure. This decreasing trend of international collaboration in Korean science was largely caused by discipline-to-discipline variations in coverage of the SCI database. Among the top-ten collaborating countries, only the Chinese and the Canadian share of collaborative publications with Korea increased between the two periods under consideration.
The number of Brazilian publications in the Institute for Scientific Information database, ISI, increased significantly in
the last 20 years, comprising more than 1 percent of the database in the last two years. The relationship between size and
recognition of Brazilian science, estimated by number of ISI-indexed publications, p, and citations, c, obeyed a power law,
c = k pn. The value of n, a known indicator of such relationship was 1.42 0.04, significantly higher than that found for the whole
set of ISI-indexed world publications. The recent growth of Brazilian publication was not solely due to international collaboration,
since over the last six years international collaboration, estimated as the percentage of Brazilian publications having at
least one foreign address, reached a constant value of ca. 30%. International collaboration increased the impact of Brazilian
publications. Although the most frequent collaborating countries are those that produce the largest percentage of world"s
science, Brazilian collaboration with Argentina and Chile exhibit impacts comparable to the major science producers.
scholars are considered.
The purpose of this paper is to examine the growth in internationalcollaboration of scholars working in Eastern European nations over the past 20 years.
This analysis is concerned
International scientific collaboration is very sensitive to political and economic changes in a country or a geopolitical region. Collaboration in research is reflected by the corresponding coauthorship of the published results which can be analysed with the help of bibliometric methods. Based on data from theScience Citation Index (SCI), the change of annual international coauthorship patterns ofBulgaria, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Poland andRomania have been analysed for the periods 1981–1985 and 1984–1993, respectively. It is shown that international collaboration was not developing similarly in the countries under study. Whilst scientific communities of Hungary and Poland have already been opening in the early 80s, the international collaboration of the other East-European countries was still dominated by COMECON relations till 1989. As expected, since 1990 an increasing scientific collaboration with highly developed countries can be observed in all five countries. At the same time, scientific collaboration with the former communist countries shows a clear decline. The great share of international co-authorship links is some countries reflect various tendencies part of which are interpreted with the help of a cardiologic model.
The 598 papers on physics published between 1987 and 1994 with at least one author presinting Chilean affiliation are scrutinized.
Several aspects are cross-examined along the period of eight years: number of papers, cumulative impact factor, average impact
factor, international co-authorship, most visited journals and main Chilean institutions. It is found that physics is growing
in Chile with international collaboration playing an important role. The average impact factor is relatively high and rather
constant throughout the period reflecting that the good level of Chilean physics is stable. The articles spread in 165 different
journals, but most of the productivity is to be found in a few journals of high impact factor. Most of the research is done
by institutions in Santiago but other emerging institutions are also identified.