On January 21, 2003, an explosion occurred while ion exchange resin (IER) was being used to separate impurities from uranium
solution. To clarify the cause of the accident and go/no-go criteria of the explosion, elemental analysis of the IER, DSC
analysis, and SIKAREX analysis (a screening tool for runaway reactions) were performed. Finally, experiments on the same scale
as the accident were conducted in an explosion chamber. When HClO4 was added to IER-NO3, the IER violently exploded without any heating nor metal ions such as uranium. It was confirmed that the accident was caused
by an incorrect procedure in the chemical process. From the standpoint of explosion safety, IER-NO3 in particular should be kept away from perchloric acid in the laboratory.
Authors:K. Gupta, Suman Singh, G. Inamdar, A. Madhusudan, and S. Tripathi
This paper deals with the studies on decontaminations of spent ion exchange resin used for purification of plutonium in PUREX
process stream. Studies were carried out to optimize the chemical procedure for removal of plutonium and fission products
activities form spent Ion Exchange resin. Different metal complexing reagents were tested for leaching out of radionuclides
entrapped in irradiated spent ion exchange resin. The experimental results indicate that 0.01 M NaF solution was found the
most suitable for removal of plutonium. The mixture of Na2CO3 and sodium salt of EDTA solution was found to be better for decontamination of spent ion exchange resin from beta and gamma
activities. Optimized mixture of 0.5 M Na2CO3 and 0.1 M sodium salt of EDTA solution was found to be the most effective for fission product activities removal. After successive
multiple contacts using these suitable reagents, the Pu and fission product activities in spent ion exchange resin were brought
down to a minimum possible level, making it quite suitable for its long term storage.
Authors:S. Rengaraj, Kyeong-Ho Yeon, and Seung-Hyeon Moon
A method for the removal of nickel from waste water by adsorption process on ion exchange resin was studied. The percentage removal of nickel depends upon the contact time, pH and dose of adsorbent. Adsorption of nickel on ion exchange resins obeys Freundlich adsorption isotherm. The applicability of Lagergren kinetic model has also been investigated. In order to understand the adsorption behavior of nickel, a number of batch experiments were conducted at various pH values. The results show that the adsorption is maximum in the pH range 2 to 8. The studies showed that the ion exchange resins IRN77 and SKN1 can be used as an efficient adsorbent material for the removal of Ni(II) from water and coolant water.
In order to reduce analytical expenses by the re-use of typical ion-exchange resins and partition chromatographic column supports,
frequently used in large scale routine analysis of biological samples in many radiochemical laboratories, the problem of their
recovery was studied in column and batch operations. The difficulties encountered with respect to some elements are discussed
Composite ion-exchange resins were prepared by coating copper-ferrocyanide (CFC) and hydrous manganese oxide (HMO) powders
on polyurethane (PU) foam. Polyvinyl acetate/Acetone was used as a binder. The foam was loaded with about five times its weight
with CFC and HMO powders. The distribution coefficients of CFC-PU foam and HMO-PU foam for cesium and strontium respectively
were estimated. Under similar conditions the HMO-PU foam showed higher capacity as well as better kinetics for removal of
strontium than CFC-PU foam for Cs. The pilot plant scale studies were conducted using a mixed composite ion-exchange resin
bed. About 1000 bed volumes could be passed before attaining a DF of 10 from an initial value of 60–80. The spent resin was
digested in alkaline KMnO4 and the digested liquid was fixed in cement matrix. The matrices were characterized with respect to compressive strength
and leach resistance.
Authors:I. Plećaš, A. Perić, S. Glodic, and A. Kostadinović
Leaching of137Cs from ion-exchange resin incorporated in cement and bitumen composite using two methods based on theoretical equations has been developed. These were: Method I, diffusion equation derived for a plane source model1 and Method II, empirical model employing a polynominal equation2,3. Results presented in this paper are examples of data obtained in a cement and bitumen testing project which will influence the design of a future radioactive waste storage center.
This paper is a study on a stable destruction method of radioactive waste ion exchange resins. According to the resin TGA
results, its decomposition occurred through three stages. And a sufficient retention time of the resins and an effective retention
capacity of SO2 gases and the doped metal compounds were required to destruct resins doped with radioactive metals stably. The resins doped
with radioactive metal surrogates were effectively destructed in the lab-scale MCO system. CO and SO2 emissions were below 100 and 1 ppm, respectively. And the surrogates were collected more than 99.9% in the molten carbonate.
Thus, the resins can be destructed stably in the MCO process.
Various methods of preparing standards for activation analysis have been reported in the literature. This paper describes
the feasibility of preparing ion exchange resin based standards containing predetermined levels of ions. Using a solution
of known initial concentration of the ion, and given the value of its distribution coefficient, it is possible to predict
the resin concentration that will be obtained. Resins containing ppm levels of copper and manganese have been prepared and
their stabilities evaluated over a period of time. The feasibility of preparing a multielement standard has been studied with
five rare earth elements (La, Ce, Sm, Eu and Dy).
Preliminary results of experimental testing and comparison of131I separation efficiency from model solutions on ion-exchange resins pretreated in some special ways are presented. Strongly
basic and strongly acidic resins were pretreated chemically and used for the separation of radioiodine by means of isotopic-exchange,
ion-exchange or chemisorption and their combinations. The sorbents were tested for pI, pH, their stability during storage
and selectivity of separation. From the point of view of the efficiency and selectivity of separation the sorbents based on
strongly basic resins and with assumed isotopic-exchange mechanism of radioiodine separation appear to be relatively more
Authors:J. Skubiszewska-Zięba, R. Leboda, B. Charmas, W Grzegorczyk, and R. Szmigielski
Thermal analysis was used to study thermal behavior of the sulfonated
ion exchange resin Duolite C20 in the hydrogen, sodium and calcium forms.
The aim of this paper was to prepare spherical carbon adsorbents. SEM and
AFM microscopic methods have been applied to describe their surface characteristics.
It was stated that structural parameters of prepared active carbons depend
on the kind of cation present in the resin. The use of calcium form of Duolite
C20 as the initial polymer precursor allowed to obtain the active carbon with
better yield and better developed pore structure compared with other forms
of this ion exchanger.