Search Results

You are looking at 1 - 10 of 148 items for :

  • "Ionizing radiation" x
  • All content x
Clear All

Neoplasm 1997 44 117 121 Law on Ionizing Radiation Protection, Official Gazette of the Federal Rpublic of

Restricted access

Abstract  

Chemical warfare agents have been stockpiled for almost a decade and their destruction has become an environmental issue that will continue to require attention for many years. There are hundreds of thousands of tonnes yet to be destroyed, and the current chemical or incineration techniques are not without problems. While many researchers are seeking better chemical techniques, we decided to try ionizing radiation to destroy sulphur mustard with the goal of producing non-toxic products. We irradiated a variety of sulphur mustard samples by both a mixed field source (β, γ and neutrons) and a pure gamma source. The mixed field irradiation of wet sulphur mustard for long irradiation times was the most successful at destroying the chemical agent.

Restricted access
Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry
Authors: K. Inn, B. Coursey, E. Eisenhower, M. Walker, H. Heaton, and K. Duvall

Abstract  

Over the past ten years, the National Institute of Standards and Technology has, through its Office of Radiation Measurement, developed a national program for Secondary Laboratories. These Secondary Laboratories provide the necessary calibrations and quality assurance testing to support and affirm the caliber of the measurements in the areas they serve. The areas that are in the program include State Radiation Protection, Personnel Dosimetry, Survey Instrument Calibration, High-Level Dosimetry, Radiation Therapy, Bioassay, Survey Instrument Testing, Ionizing Radiation, Environmental Radioactivity, Radioactivity Standards, and Radon.

Restricted access

Summary  

Chlorpyrifos is an organophosphate pesticide commercialized since 1965 and it is now one of the top five commercial insecticides. It is registered for use in over 900 different pesticide formulations in the world. Chlorpyrifos poisoning usually affects many organs of the body, such as the central and peripheral nervous system, eyes, respiratory system, and the digestive tract. Depending on the pesticide formulation and type of application, chlorpyrifos residues may be detectable in water, soil, and on the surfaces from months to years. This paper presents preliminary studies of the removal of chlorpyrifos by exposition to ionizing radiation, to be applied in pesticide container decontamination. Samples containing various concentrations of chlorpyrifos in acetonitrile were irradiated with absorbed doses varying from 5 to 50 kGy, using a 60Co gamma-source with 5,000 Ci activity (Gamma cell type). The chemical analysis of the chlorpyrifos and the by-products resulted from the radiolitic degradation were made using a gas chromatography associated to mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and gas chromatography with flame ionization detector (GC-FID).

Restricted access

Abstract  

The effect of ionizing radiation on the physicochemical properties of chloramphenicol in solid state has been studied. The compound was e-beam irradiated with doses from the range 25–400 kGy and the possible changes were detected in the organoleptic methods (colour, form, odour, solubility and clarity), by SEM observations, X-ray, chromatography (TLC), spectrophotometry (UV, IR, EPR) and thermal (DSC) methods. No significant changes relative to the unirradiated sample were observed as a result of irradiation with the dose of 25 kGy – a standard dose for radiation sterilization, besides free radicals generation. Higher doses were found to produce a change in colour, increase in absorbance (UV), changes in the XRD spectra and appearance of products of radiolysis. The presence of the radiolysis products was confirmed by the TLC method, indirectly by DSC showing a decrease in the melting point from 0.2 to 4.5C and enthalpy from 3.8 to 23.3 J g–1, respectively. A linear relationship was obtained between the irradiation dose (25–400 kGy) and the melting point of chloramphenicol, characterised by the correlation coefficient r=0.9968. The EPR signal intensity increased with increasing dose of irradiation and the lifetime of the free radicals was longer than 6 months. No changes were detected in SEM and IR spectra. As follows from our results, the DSC method is most suitable for a fast monitoring of the drugs subjected to sterilization by irradiation as it permits detection of changes occurring even on irradiation with low doses and their quantitative description.

Restricted access

Abstract  

The effect of60Co -rays and detergents on bacteria isolated from monuments has been studied. Most of the heterotrophic bacteria examined were found to be resistant to radiation, whereas nitrifiers are moderately radio-resistant. The most effective growth supression of microorganisms was observed with the simultaneons application of ionizing radiation and detergents.

Restricted access
Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry
Authors: M. Evora, L. Machado, V. Lourenço, O. Gonçalez, H. Wiebeck, and L. de Andrade e Silva

Abstract  

The aim of this work is to study the ionizing radiation effects on thermal properties of there cycled polyamide-6. This polymer was irradiated with an electron beam of 1.5 MeV with different doses. The thermal properties of the samples were determined by TG, DSC and DMA measurements. It was observed that the irradiated samples of recycled polyamide-6undergo a crosslinking process.

Restricted access

Abstract  

Effects of ionizing radiations on organic ion exchangers are recognized as a vexing problem in the processing of special nuclear materials and high specific activity radioactive waste forms. An extensive literature survey, started in 1976 and updated periodically, indicates that radiation decomposition of ion exchange materials has the potential for a variety of undesirable consequences. It is also apparent from this survey that systematic efforts to identify and resolve these problems and to develop radiation resistant ion exchangers are extremely limited. There is, however, widely scattered information in the literature that is useful in designing and operating ion-exchange-based process systems with reasonable assurance of safety. The compilation of experimental data presented in this paper can contribute to better design and safer operations of synthetic organic ion exchange systems at nuclear material processing facilities.

Restricted access

Summary  

A major concern with leaking petroleum is the environmental contamination by the toxic and water-soluble components such as benzene, toluene and xylenes (BTX). These hydrocarbons have relatively high pollution potential because of their significant toxicity. All BTX compounds are depressants to the central nervous system. Consequently, BTX are priority pollutants and their occurrence has led to the development of several physical, chemical and biological methods for their removal. The use of nuclear technology for protection and conservation of the environment, by the destruction of toxic organic compounds present in the environmental, drinking water, soils and industrial sewage has been the object of study of several authors in Brazil and in the world. The objective of this paper is to present the preliminary results of the study of contamination of the seawater by the main pollutants of the output and transport of petroleum, such as benzene, toluene and xylene, and their removal by the exposure to the ionizing radiation.

Restricted access

Abstract  

The spectrometric system for ionizing radiation measurement with pile-up rejection and counting losses correction has been described. The results for HpGe, Ge(Li), Si(Li) and surface barrier detectors have been presented. The total count rate ranged from 500 to 105 cps and different radioisotopes have been used. The counting losses correction accuracy has been within ±1% with tenfold reduction of background from pile-up pulses. The possibility of the system application for radiation intensity measurement of the mixture of short- and longlived radioisotopes has been discussed.

Restricted access