Authors:Sam-Wook Choi, Young-Chul Shin, Jung Yeon Mok, Dai-Jin Kim, Jung-Seok Choi and Samuel Suk-Hyun Hwang
, including impaired decision-making.
Poor performance on the IowaGamblingTask (IGT), designed to assess risky decision-making, has been found consistently among SUDs ( Noel, Bechara, Dan, Hanak, & Verbanck, 2007 ). Similarly, patients with GD have
Human social learning is mediated not only by motor mimicries but also by declarative/linguistic information transmission. Focusing on declarative social learning, we reasoned that believability of secondhand information differs across the domain of information content (i.e., social domain vs. ecological domain). In particular, we predicted that people assess the veracity of secondhand information in the social domain more cautiously than that in the ecological domain because information in the social domain is often associated with manipulative incentives (e.g., resource competition with rivals). The present study employed a modified version of the Iowa Gambling Task, which was described as a problem of either social or ecological risk management. Also, participants were presented with an advice sheet purportedly provided by another participant. When the task was described as a social risk problem, participants were less likely to follow the advice than when the task was described as an ecological risk problem. This result implies that when participants had some contradictory firsthand information, which they acquired through performing the task themselves, they downplayed the secondhand information, which was presented as a form of advice, in the social domain more than in the ecological domain.
Authors:Giacomo Grassi, Stefano Pallanti, Lorenzo Righi, Martijn Figee, Mariska Mantione, Damiaan Denys, Daniele Piccagliani, Alessandro Rossi and Paolo Stratta
facets could be also relevant for the development of a dependency upon compulsions. The studies mentioned above assessed impulsivity (Trough the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale), decision-making (Trough the IowaGamblingTask) and probabilistic reasoning
Authors:Maria Nikolaidou, Danaë Stanton Fraser and Neal Hinvest
A widely used task to assess decision-making function is the IowaGamblingTask (IGT) ( Bechara, Damasio, Damasio, & Lee, 1999 ). In the IGT, unknown outcomes must be learned through repeated exposure and an appropriate self
Authors:Bieke De Wilde, Anneke Goudriaan, Bernard Sabbe, Wouter Hulstijn and Geert Dom
Backgrounds and aims
Pathological gambling, a common psychiatric disorder, has many similarities with substance use disorders. Relapse, an important element in addictive disorders, however, has seldom been studied in pathological gambling. Hence, in analogy with previous research studies examining the role of self-report and neurocognitive measures on relapse in substance dependent patients, the present pilot study was executed.
Twenty-two pathological gamblers and 31 healthy controls took part in this research. They filled in self-report questionnaires measuring impulsive personality (Barratt Impulsiveness Scale, Sensitivity to Punishment and Sensitivity to Reward Questionnaires) and performed neurocognitive tasks measuring impulsivity, decision-making and attentional bias (Iowa Gambling Task, Delay Discounting Task, Stroop Gambling Task). Twelve months later gambling activity was re-examined.
Analyses showed that PGs who relapsed (n = 13) did not differ on self-report and neurocognitive measures of impulsivity with PGs who did not relapse (n = 9). However, both groups did differ in age at onset. Finally, healthy controls and PGs differed in some (Barratt Impulsiveness Scale, Stroop Gambling Task), but not all impulsivity measures (Delay Discounting Task, Iowa Gambling Task, Sensitivity to Punishment and Sensitivity to Reward Questionnaires).
One-year relapse in pathological gamblers is not predicted by self-report and or neurocognitive measures of impulsivity and decision-making. The similarities in performances between pathological gamblers and healthy controls illustrate the relative health of the examined pathological gamblers. This last finding supports the idea that subtypes of pathological gamblers exist so that different treatment strategies might be necessary.