The main characteristics of intra-EU labour mobility are well documented. There is less focus, however, on the pattern of mobility of the East European (EU-13) EU-mobile citizens. This group constitutes more than half (57%) of all the EU movers and show, to some extent, other features than the rest of the EU mobile citizens (EU-15). The first part of this paper gives a brief overview of some key demographic and labour market characteristics of the East European mobile citizens in the most important destination countries. The perspectives of the sending countries are not analysed frequently enough, and thus the second part of the paper focuses on this issue in the case of Hungary, by asking to what extent the serious labour shortages, ensuing from the outflow of Hungarians, could be compensated by the recent increase of immigration of third country nationals. Using OECD data, the paper quantifies the balance of labour gains and losses for Hungary and compares this with Czechia, Poland, and Slovakia. The analysis concludes that despite the substantial recent inflow of third country nationals into Hungary, it remains to be seen whether this has a real substitution effect for the lost domestic labour force.
This paper reviews the deeper societal and economic reasons behind the British choice of leaving the European Union. We address the detailed results of the referendum and the long-standing sceptical British attitude towards European integration; next, we analyse the net budgetary contribution that changed enormously after the Eastern Enlargement. It is argued that the rise in the immigrantnative ratio had a significant impact on employee’s pay level in certain areas, therefore pro-Brexit campaigners highlighted migration as one of the major problems arising from EU membership. Increasing income and wealth inequalities and a growing anti-elite sentiment in British society, coupled with the negative image of Brussels bureaucrats and a British approach to the rule of law that is fundamentally different from the continental one, also contributed to the final result of the referendum. Our analysis ends with a glimpse into the close future, emphasising that the future of British-EU relations depends wholly on the pragmatism and wisdom of the negotiating parties.
Although industry clusters are major targets of regional economic development in less developed regions as well, we still need a deeper understanding of how the spatial clustering of firms generates dynamics in lagging regions. These latter environments may differ from the typical cluster policy examples that are usually specialised global centres of dynamically growing industries. Using census-type data of Hungarian firms, we test the effect of major cluster indicators — regional specialisation and spatial concentration of industries — and the impact of FDI on regional productivity and employment growth in Hungary. Our results suggest that regional specialisation does not affect regional growth, while the spatial concentration of industries is found to influence productivity and employment growth with an overwhelmingly negative effect. Furthermore, regional employment growth is associated negatively with the initial level of regional specialisation. Results suggest that Hungary has evolved into a dual economy in which previously specialised regions and geographically concentrated industries have lost their pace, while the main factor that favoured regional economic growth was the presence of large foreign companies. Therefore, economic policies fostering regional specialisation and the spatial concentration of industries — such as cluster policy — may have minor effects unless the interaction of foreign-owned and domestic companies is encouraged.
Karlen, D. L., Mausbach, M. J., Doran, J. W., Cline, R. G., Harris, R. F., Schuman, G. E., (1997): Soil quality: A concept, definition, and framework for evaluation. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. , 61, 4-10.
Soil quality: A concept
Authors:Ruth Jiménez, S. Píriz, E. M. Mateos and S. Vadillo
Stewart, D. J., Clark, B. L. and Jarret, R. G. (1984): Differences between strains of Bacteroides nodosus in their effects on the severity of footrot, bodyweight and wool growth in Merino sheep. Austral. Vet. J. 61 , 349